Hotels & Hostelries:
Names & Titles:
TV & Film:
Ipswich Eye Shadow
Almost Ipswich - Places with Names Similar to Ipswich:
Odds & Ends:
**Please note, the sections on Ficus ipswichii & Ficus ipswichiana, Laciniaria ipswichiana, Notelaea ipsviciensis, & Polypodiisporites ipsviciensis & Thymospora ipsviciensis have now been moved to the Ipswich as a Scientific Name page**
Rosy Rapture, the Pride of the Beauty Chorus, was a play written by J M Barrie & is described as a ‘burlesque in seven scenes’. A silent film of the play came out in 1914, starring Gaby Deslys in the title role, supported by Biddy de Burgh & John East, with minor parts for G K Chesterton & George Bernard Shaw. The stage show opened in London’s Duke of York Theatre on 22nd March 1915, again with French actress Gaby Deslys playing the lead, alongside Jack Norworth.
Which Switch is the Switch, Miss, for Ipswich?
Hello?....Hello?......HEL-LO? Aah, she won’t answer me
I’ve just had a row with a telephone girl,
A telephone girl, my brain’s in a whirl
I asked her for Ipswich, but she lost her head
And somehow she switched me on Northwich instead
She got so mixed up with the switches, it’s true
That I got annoyed and I cried ‘tell me do...’
Which switch is the switch, Miss, for Ipswich?
It’s the Ipswich switch which I require
Which switch switches Ipswich with this switch?
You switched my switch on the wrong wire
You’ve switched me on Northwich...... not Ipswich
So now to prevent further hitch
If you’ll tell me which switch is Northwich and which switch is Ipswich,
I’ll know which switch is which
I begged the young lady to please put me through
I cried ‘switch me do, on Ipswich two two’
I waited an hour, then the ‘sweet little thing’
Came back from her lunch and exclaimed ‘did you ring?’
Then just as I fancied at last I was through
She cried ‘have you finished?’ I said ‘what the..? er..who?’
I got through at last and I thought all was well
Rang up my hotel, but more trouble fell
I said ‘can you fix me a table for two?’
A voice said ‘(huh) we can Sir, but this (huh) is the zoo!’
I murmured a prayer then I fainted away
And when I came round I was trying to say...
Click here to sign the Guestbook
From Auschwitz to Ipswich is a song written & performed by Pulp frontman Jarvis Cocker. It appears on his first solo album Jarvis, released in November 2006 on Rough Trade Records. When asked about the song, Cocker replied that he had come up with the phrase “Auschwitz to Ipswich” after hearing of someone whose relative had been kept in a prisoner of war camp near Ipswich during the Second World War. He admitted that the title was “slightly inappropriate” & went on to comment that the piece was “muscially quite pretty actually; it’s a pity I had to spoil it by writing such dark lyrics”.
From Auschwitz to Ipswich
“They want our way of life”
Well, they can take mine any time they like
’Cos God knows - I know I ain’t living right:
Oh, I know I'm so wrong
So like the Roman Empire fell away
Let me tell you; we are going the same way
Ah, behold the Decline and Fall
All hold hands with our backs to the wall
It’s the end:
Why don’t you admit it?
It’s the same from Auschwitz to Ipswich
I know from not where
But if you take a look inside yourself -
maybe you’ll find some in there
Not one single soul was saved
I was ordering an Indian takeaway
I was spared whilst others went to an early grave
Oh, got stoned
Yeah, went out and got stoned
Well if your ancestors could see you standing there
They would gaze in wonder at your Frigidaire
They had to fight just to survive
So can't you do something with your life?
It’s the end:
Why don’t you admit it?
It’s the same from Auschwitz to Ipswich
I know from not where
But if you take a look inside yourself -
maybe you'll find some in there
Here it comes, why don’t you embrace it?
You lack the guts needed to face it
Say goodbye to the way you’ve been living
You never realised you were on the wrong side
And nobody’s going to win
“They want our way of life”
Well, they can take mine any time they like
Long Drive Through Ipswich is a song by Brisbane based singer/songwriter/guitarist Steve Towson. Towson’s music is often categorised as folk-punk. The song first appeared on The Venom In My Veins, an EP Towson made with his band The Conscripts in 2005; subsequently also appearing on the band’s 2006 album Shah Mat. Another version appears on Towson’s untitled solo album dating from 2009.
Cause it’s a long drive through Ipswich
Long drive through town
Long drive through Ipswich as the sun is setting down
I can see the look of anguish
Written across your face
As I lay down your weary hand
I can see you’ve reached the end of your race
For the poison it lies within your blood
The poison’s in your belly
I can hear the banshee as she howls
Moving through the corridor
For all of your life you vested your trust
In the hands of those driven by lust
Until at last you severed the cord
Born in 1993, Georgina Kingsley, better known as Georgi Kay, is a singer/songwriter based in Perth, Western Australia. She released her debut EP, Strange Things in March 2010, & followed this with her first album Backwardsforwards in May 2011. Kay’s first appearance on a major international label was with the single In My Mind, released in January 2012.
In April 2013, Kay released the double A side single Ipswich/In My Mind on limited edition 7” vinyl. The song Ipswich is inspired by the Salem Witch Trials (see The Salem Witch Trials - the Ipswich Connection on the Ipswich, Massachusetts page), together with Kay’s love of horror films and the supernatural.
Drag me down to the water
And hold me down until I’m full
Until I struggle no longer
Until I’ve drowned in my sinful will
Bound my hands to the stake
And set fire to the ground below
Watch my skin bubble and burn
Beneath the rising smoke
And you may kill me now
And you may hurt me so
But I will haunt you til the end is nigh
And you may hunt me down
And you may turn me cold
But I will haunt you til the day you die
The day you die
Chase me down through the fields
You got your hooves and I got my bare heels
Chop off my head to show the world
That I am no ordinary girl
And you may kill me now
And you may hurt me so
But I will haunt you til the end is nigh
And you may hunt me down
And you may turn me cold
But I will haunt you til the day you die
The day you die
Hunting for witches
Hunting for witches
Hunting for witches
Hunting down those bitches
And you may kill me now
And you may hurt me so
But I will haunt you til the end is nigh
And you may hunt me down
And you may turn me cold
But I will haunt you til the day you die
The day you die
The day you die
The day you die
The day you die
On their sixth album, Nimi muutettu (see cover, right), which was released in 2002, the Finnish progressive rock band Absoluuttinen Nollapiste recorded a song entitled Ipswich. Written by band members Tommi Liimatta (vocals) & Aki Lääkkölä (guitars & keyboards), the group’s line up on this album is completed by Aake Otsala on bass guitar & drummer Tomi Krutsin.
Absoluuttinen Nollapiste (which translates as Absolute Zero), were formed in June 1991 in the city of Rovaniemi, approximately 3 miles (5 km) south of the Arctic Circle. The band underwent a few changes of personnel early in its existence, although the core line up as on the Nimi muutettu album has remained relatively constant since 1992. The band’s first album was Neulainen Jerkunen (1994), & they have since released many singles & albums, mainly for the Finnish market.
For anybody that’s interested, below are the lyrics; firstly in Finnish, then with an English (?) translation. All the band’s other songs have titles in Finnish, so why the name “Ipswich” has been used remains unclear. Even with the English version, I’m still not sure what the song is about. I think something may have been lost in translation!!
Jos oletetaan tilanne, kuvitellaan niitty ja niitylle
Niin monta jänistä, ettei niiden määrää käsitä,
Ja laukauksen hetkenä ei jokainen jäniksistä mahdu
Juoksemaan eri suuntaan
Kun sen kaikki näkevät,
Konttaan maantietä nisunpala suussa.
Kun sen kaikki näkevät,
Annan lampaalle tekohengitystä
Ipswichissä kuvittelemallasi niityllä.
Jos kuvitellaan rinne, siihen polku,
Jota laskeudut ja samaa polkua laskeutuu
Joku tuntematon, ei samaa polkua laskeutuva
Tuntematon sinua seuraa, ei tule paha
Mielessään, se olen minä.
Kun sen kaikki näkevät,
Konttaan maantietä nisunpala suussa.
Kun sen kaikki näkevät,
Annan lampaalle tekohengitystä
Ipswichissä kuvittelemallasi niityllä.
Annoin lampaalle tekohengitystä Ipswichissä.
Annoin lampaalle tekohengitystä Ipswichissä.
Assuming the situation, imagine a meadow and meadow
So many hares, that they understand the amount,
And he thinks a moment, not every rabbits fit
Run in a different direction
When its all to see,
Crawl to the road nisunpala mouth.
When its all to see,
I'll give artificial respiration with lamb
Ipswich imagine a meadow.
If one assumes a slope, the path
And the land on which the same path descends
Someone unknown, is not the same path descending
Unknown on you, not bad
In his mind, it's me.
When its all to see,
Crawl to the road nisunpala mouth.
When its all to see,
I'll give artificial respiration with lamb
Ipswich imagine a meadow.
I gave the sheep artificial respiration Ipswich.
I gave the sheep artificial respiration Ipswich.
Listed in this section are as many songs & pieces of music with “Ipswich” in the title that I have been able to find. There are undoubtedly others out there that have been missed. If anyone knows of any not included below, please email details to email@example.com
The Ipswich Prisoners - Paul Buck: Released in 2012, The Ipswich Prisoners is one of five songs on Paul Buck’s The Ipswich Prisoners EP (the other songs being Jet Black Sunset/Purple Slurpee/The Fountain/Great Elation). Buck sings & plays all the instruments on the EP, which falls into the electronic/synth pop genre.
Buck is from Branford, Connecticut, which presumably means that the Ipswich in question is Ipswich, Massachusetts. Exactly who the ‘Ipswich Prisoners’ refers to is uncertain.
Ipswich Dozen - Dead ‘Til Friday: Formed in 2007, Dead ‘Til Friday are a metal / hardcore band from the Newcastle/Kilkeel area of County Down, Northern Ireland. Having released their first EP Through the Motions in 2008, they brought out the follow-up Ipswich Dozen E.P in March 2010. As well as the title track, the EP also features two other songs: She’s the Ideas Man’s Daughter & Silence is Golden.
Who or what the ‘Ipswich Dozen’ refers to is not clear at present.
Ipswich is a Good English Place - The Guy Who Sings Songs About Cities & Towns: Ipswich is a Good English Place is a strange, wacky 1 minute 17 seconds rap song by someone calling himself ‘The Guy Who Sings Songs About Cities & Towns’. The song is taken from the 2012 album English England, British Britain, Uk, Great Song!, which features more than 90 short tracks, each of which ‘pays tribute’ to an English town or city. Titles include: An Attempt to Celebrate Darlington in Song; A Mildly Enjoyable Song About Coventry & Farnborough Deserves Its Own Song, so Here We Go!.
Ipswich is a Good English Place namechecks the Ancient House, the Willis Building & Neptune Marina, amongst other local landmarks.
The Guy Who Sings Songs About Cities & Towns has released a number of albums in similar vein, all consisting, as his name suggests, of short, rather strange songs about towns & cities in Great Britain, Canada, Australia & various US states. These include These Songs Are About Canada Places; New York State Nice Places Ny Song Yes! & Texas City & Town Song Fun, Tx.
Ipswich, Queensland - The Guy Who Sings Songs About Cities & Towns: Another offering from the above mentioned The Guy Who Sings Songs About Cities & Towns, is the two minutes fourteen seconds long Ipswich, Queensland. Taken from the January 2014 album These Australia Places Deserve These Nice Songs.
According to the lyrics of the song, Ipswich, Queensland has “got a lot of cool stuff in it”, & is a “fabulous community”. In fact “everything good in the world comes from Ipswich”. Riverlink Shopping Centre gets a mention (“you can go & shop in there”), as does Ipswich Railway Station.
Honeymoon in Ipswich - Andrew Green: The instrumental track Honeymoon in Ipswich is featured on jazz guitarist Andrew Green’s 2008 album Narrow Margin. Based in New York, Green is the author of several books including Jazz Guitar Structures & Jazz Guitar Technique. Honeymoon in Ipswich was composed by Green & runs for nearly nine minutes. The reason for the name is unclear, unless Green did actually spend his honeymoon in one of the Ipswiches of the world (Massachusetts, maybe?).
Ipswich - Grannykart: Ipswich, by Grannykart clocks in at just 1 minute 17 seconds long. It is basically a weird & wacky version of Which Switch is the Switch, Miss, for Ipswich, which samples the opening “Hello?......HEL-LO?” from the 1915 Billy Murray recording (see above). The song features on the electronic/experimental album Grannykart’s Own Thing, which was released in 2010. The leading figure in the Studio City, Los Angeles based Grannykart is Jody Beth Rosen, with occasional help from Andre LaFosse.
Into Ipswich - Nick Wyard: Into Ipswich features on Nick Wyard’s 2011 album An Acquired Taste. Wyard is originally from Chelmsford, England but is now resident in Toronto, Canada. The album was put together over many years, beginning in the early 2000s, & the songs include references to several places in the Essex/Suffolk region of England. Wyard’s diverse influences range from medieval, renaissance & baroque music, through Andrew Lloyd Webber & the Beatles, to progressive rock acts such as Genesis, Jethro Tull & Pink Floyd. At just under four minutes long, the instrumental track Into Ipswich has a medieval feel to it.
Where’s the Sea In Ipswich - Exit 13: Where’s the Sea in Ipswich is a track from the 2009 re-issue of the album Celia’s Last Wednesday Plus Singles by Exit 13. Formed in Ipswich, Suffolk in the early 80s, the band Exit 13 were at first known as Emergency Exit. Their music is best described as psychedelic folk. Their first single Fields of Joy was released in 1985, with the debut album Celia’s Last Wednesday first appearing in 1989. The band has released singles & albums sporadically over the years, & were still in existence up until at least 2008. The band’s line-up has undergone many changes over the years, revolving around the ever-present guitarist, vocalist & main songwriter Steve Mann.
Where’s the Sea in Ipswich is a folky song about sailing, although Ipswich doesn’t actually feature in the lyrics.
All the Fish in Ipswich - Underwater Airport: The 2011 digital only album The Sea Sides by Underwater Airport includes the short experimental instrumental track All the Fish in Ipswich.
According to the Boston, Massachusetts based band’s website: “Underwater Airport is an improvising and recording multimedia ensemble combining music and projected visuals for the purpose of creating spontaneous portals into alternate space-time dimensions” Their music is described as “ambient folk jazz for the sonically adventurous”
The line up comprises:
Peter Spellman - Drums, Percussion, Guitar & Keyboard
Russell Lane – Drums & Percussion
Jim Whisenant - Bass, Stick, Percussion & Laptop
Lynda Stephens – Saxes & Electronic Wind Instrument
Marc Lisle - Electronic Wind Instrument, Percussion, Video Projection & Laptop
Ed Blomquist - Guitar, Bass, Synthesisers, Flutes, Percussion, Laptop, Loops & Vocals.
Goin’ Down to Ipswich Mass. - Robby Roadsteamer: The acoustic guitar accompanied song Goin’ Down to Ipswich Mass. by Robbie Roadsteamer is from the 2008 album New England Weathered Friends. As the title suggests, this song is about Ipswich, Massachusetts, with Crane Beach getting a mention in the lyrics.
Musician,comedian & performance artist Roadsteamer (AKA Louis Robert Potylo) hails from Boston, Massachusetts. His other albums include Postcards From the Den Of Failure & The Heart of a Rhino.
Ipswich - Ben Walker: The four minutes seven seconds long jazz/folk song Ipswich features on Ben Walker’s 2013 album Gorgeous. London born Walker lived in Suffolk during the 1980s, before heading across the Atlantic. He studied jazz in New Jersey in 1992, then moved to Toronto, Canada. He later returned to London, where he gained a first class degree in Performance Arts from Middlesex University. He is now based in the north of England. His first CD Bahaudin was released in 2001. The album Gorgeous is a reworking of 12 of his early compositions. In the past, Walker has worked with members of such bands as Lindisfarne, 10cc, New Model Army & Jools Holland’s Rhythm and Blues Orchestra.
The song Ipswich includes the line “down the Norwich Road, take the A14 to Stow” & suggests “getting up & getting down to Ipswich town”.
***Beware of the songs Merry Christmas Ipswich & Happy New Year Ipswich with Countdown and Auld Lang Syne, credited to Personalisongs & available to download. These songs are not unique to Ipswich, but are available for a whole host of different towns throughout Great Britain, with just the name of the town or city being changed on each recording.***
Ipswich Town FC Songs: Starting in the 1970s, several songs have been released about Ipswich Town Football Club with “Ipswich” in the title. The first of these was Ipswich Football Calypso, credited to Johnny Cobnut (a play on the name of the then club chairman John Cobbold, together with Tolly Cobbold’s Cobnut Ale, which dates from that period). Ipswich Football Calypso was the b-side of the club’s first ever 7” single from the early 70s, the a-side of which was Come on the Town (see single & original cover, right).
There have been several versions of Ipswich, Ipswich (Get that Goal) released over the years. The first appeared in the mid 70s, with a special edition, with adapted lyrics, coming out during the FA Cup winning run of 1977/78. Three different versions of this song can be found on the 2000 album Singing the Blues: The Songs of Ipswich Town FC, one of which is listed as The Ipswich Song, with another being a punk version by Elmerhassel. Other songs on the album include Blitzkreig Bop (For The Ipswich Lot) by Blue Flag ‘78 (which is based on the Ramones song Blitzkreig Bop), & Pride in Ipswich by Psychodelia.
Beware, however, of a track called Go Get the Goal (Ipswich Town). This track, by Don’t Kick the Baby, appears in 26 versions on a digital album called Go Get the Goal - Championship League. Each song is identical apart from the insertion of the name of a different English football club in the lyrics.
The Ugly Truth about Ipswich 1981-2011: Also worthy of mention is The Ugly Truth about Ipswich 1981-2011, a double CD compilation released on the Antigen Records label. Featuring a truly eclectic mix of 45 different artists & bands from Ipswich, England, the album’s diverse line-up includes the pop sounds of Nik Kershaw, the grindcore/death metal of Extreme Noise Terror, the classic punk of The Adicts, the indie rock of Bleach, the hardcore punk of The Stupids & the reggae of Jah Warriors, amongst many others.
Formed in Christchurch, New Zealand in late March 2011, Ipswich are a post-punk/indie band comprising Steven Marr on guitar & lead vocals, Matthew Gunn on bass & backing vocals, & Jamie Larson on drums.
In the aftermath of the earthquake that devastated Christchurch in February 2011, with virtually no live music venues available, the band began by playing at house parties. When venues began to re-open, Ipswich became regulars on the Christchurch scene, & soon began getting attention from the local media. Their self-titled debut EP was issued in May 2011 & was followed in November 2011 by the four track Living in a Stranger’s Home EP.
Ipswich’s first album was Live in Dunedin, which, as the title suggests, features a live nine track set recorded at XII Below in Dunedin on 21st January, 2012. It was released in April 2012 through Muzai Records. The CD of the album was sold encased in a 5.25” floppy disc!
The band’s first studio album, Baby Factory, followed in July 2012 (see album cover, right), featuring ten self-penned tracks & again released through Muzai, although this time in a more conventional CD format. A single, Whitecore/Smoke Crack, Shake Babies was released in November 2012. The majority of Ipswich’s back catalogue is still available to download.
According to the NZ Musician magazine the band took its name “from a street sign somewhere between Christchurch and Dunedin”. This must be either Ipswich Street in Hampden, a rural settlement between the two cities; or Ipswich Street in Bradford, a suburb of Dunedin (see Roads Named Ipswich page).
Based in Fremont, California, the band Ipswich describe their music as Jazz Punk Infusion/Thrash-a-billy/Rock/Alt-Rock. Formed in 2009 from the remnants of a band named The Dying Ego, the current band line up comprises Noel English on vocals, Kenn Bobbit & Bobby Rodriguez on Guitars, Carlos Torres on bass, Dave Govang on keyboards & Rizaldy Abawag on drums (who replaced original drummer Kris Betchart). Five of their songs are available to download from the band’s Facebook page: Blurred, Self Inflicted Misery, Outta Control, Down Not Done & Save Me.
The band hosted a music venue at the Moose Lodge in Newark, CA every 4th Saturday called “Rock the Moose”, although whether this is still ongoing is uncertain, as the last post on the band’s Facebook page dates from July 2012. It may even be that the band have now split up.
No reason has yet come to light as to why a band based in California should use the name Ipswich.
This motel is located at 2222 E North Ave, Grand Junction, CO 81501. The present management advises us that the name was given by the original owners who came from Ipswich, England, before 1970. Unfortunately, their names have now been forgotten, although they will certainly be held on record somewhere. The hotel was incorporated as a company in 1973.
If anyone has any further details, please let me know by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ipswich View Homestead Bed & Breakfast is situated at 45 Folewood Rd, Toodyay WA 6566, Australia.The original homestead called Ipswich View was probably built in the late 1860s. The name was given by the owner of the land at the time, John Acton Wroth, as it reminded him of the view over the River Orwell in his home town of Ipswich in England.
The Ferguson family owned Ipswich View for over 100 years & the property has a reputation as one of the most famous haunted houses in Western Australia. Room 5 is said to be haunted by three old ladies. Room 2 keeps locking itself, even though nothing is found to be wrong with the lock. As well as this, whispered voices, knocking sounds, footsteps & the meowing of a ghost cat have also been reported.
Ipswich View Homestead is set in 7 acres, only a few minute’s drive from the centre of Toodyay. Facilities include a tennis court, mini golf & a swimming pool. It has five guest rooms plus one self-contained family unit. Despite the paranormal activity, it is said to be a peaceful & serene place to stay with comfortable rooms & great food. It is currently run by Maureen & Jim Stephens.
Our research to date shows that, sadly, most pubs, bars & inns that have at one time or another had the name “Ipswich” in their title are no longer in existence; the only remaining one being in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Those that have closed or now exist under a different name are listed below. Beneath these are also listed the motels, guest houses etc. with “Ipswich” in their name.
(Pictured left is the former Ipswich Arms on Tayfen Road, Bury St Edmunds)
Still existing (USA):
Ipswich Sports Bar & Grill Hammatt Street, Ipswich, Massachusetts
Still Exists, but under a different name (England):
Ipswich Arms Tayfen Road, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk Now called The Beerhouse. Established 1857 & has also been called The Gaff, Segment and Bar Curvo
No longer existing (Australia):
Ipswich Arms King Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Mentioned in The Sydney Morning Herald of 3rd March
1845. A property was being sold that was adjacent to
the Ipswich Arms.
No longer existing (England):
Ipswich Arms Fingringhoe Road, East Donyland, Essex A listed Grade II building. Became the Walnut Tree
in the 1980s. Converted to a private house in 2003.
Ipswich Arms Market Place, Ingatestone, Essex Became the Ipswich Arms & Chequers for a time in the mid 18th century. Changed name to the White Hart
in 1881, before closing & being demolished in the 1960s.
Ipswich Arms North Hill, Colchester, Essex On the northeast side of the Roman wall. Changed
name to The Lancer in the 1860s, after the building
of the cavalry barracks. Closed as a pub in 1908, the building became a restaurant in the 1990s.
Ipswich Arms Moulsham Street, Chelmsford, Essex Dating from before the 18th century; a coaching inn
near to the river. Later changed its name to The
Coachhouse and The Ship Inn. Demolished c.1900.
Ipswich Arms Cullum Street, London EC3 Site now occupied by offices; recorded in 1677 & 1816,
as it was the terminus for the Ipswich Carrier, the
postal service to Ipswich.
Ipswich Arms Lower Thames Street, London EC3 Mentioned in 1790 as a meeting place for the
Freemasons; recorded in a court case in 1795 at the
Old Bailey as a place of an incident; mentioned
along with the Ipswich Arms on Cullum Street in
John Lockie's "Topography of London" 1810, & again
mentioned in 1826.
Ipswich Arms Endell Street, London WC2 In 1861 the Friends of Labour Loan Society had a
branch based at this pub. No other details available.
Ipswich Arms Henniker Road, Stratford, Essex Appears in the London Gazette 0f 1869, as the
(now Greater London E15) publican went bankrupt.
Ipswich Arms Lower Brook Street, Ipswich, Suffolk First recorded in 1684. Closed c.1900
Ipswich Arms London Road, Ipswich, Suffolk Briefly renamed Bridge House during the Second World
War. Closed in 1999, the site is now a supermarket.
Ipswich Arms Mann Island, Liverpool, Merseyside Closed in 19th century; a dockland pub.
Ipswich & Suffolk Princes Street, Ipswich, Suffolk Closed in 19th century (previously Ipswich & Suffolk
Ipswich Tavern Tavern Street, Ipswich, Suffolk Closed mid 19th century
Ipswich Tavern St Stephens Plain, Norwich, Norfolk Closed 1974. There had been an alehouse on this site
since 1317; it was called the City of Norwich
until 1864, then Ipswich Arms 1864 to 1866,
before becoming Ipswich Tavern.
(The Ipswich Tavern in Norwich, pictured in 1936)
As you can see, several of the English pubs were situated in Ipswich, & no reason for their naming is therefore required. The reasons for the naming of many of those elsewhere, however,
has been slightly more difficult to ascertain. The most likely explanation, it seems, is that they were established by someone originally from Ipswich; the actual name of the person in question having long been forgotten. Much of what follows is, therefore, speculation.
Six of the pubs outside Ipswich were in East Anglia (all within a 50 mile radius of Ipswich); one in Suffolk, one in Norfolk & four in Essex. Of those in Essex, only the Ipswich Arms at Chelmsford, on the main route from Ipswich to London, could be classed as a coaching inn. Coaching inns were usually large hostelries that had to have stables as well as accommodation, & as such none of the other three in Essex, at East Donyland, Ingatestone & Colchester, fit this description, as all were smaller establishments & none were on the main coaching routes.
The Ipswich Arms in Bury St Edmunds, first recorded in 1857, is also unlikely to have been a coaching inn, as by this date the railway had superseded the horse, & the days of coach travel were in decline.
The Ipswich Arms/Tavern in Norwich was tucked away down a back courtyard off Westlegate near to St Stephens Plain, which also makes it an unlikely coaching inn. Whether there was any connection with the Suffolk Arms, close by on Market Place, is also unknown. The Ipswich Arms was originally called the City of Norwich, & it may be that the name change of 1864 came about to avoid confusion with another, newer tavern called the Norwich Arms, close at hand on the corner of Hewitt’s Yard on Ber Street. The Ipswich Road is, of course, just south of St Stephens Plain, so this may have some bearing on the matter.
Of the four Ipswich Arms pubs in Greater London, the one in Cullum Street, EC3 is the only one for which a reason can be found for the name; as mentioned above, this was the terminus for the Ipswich Carrier, the postal service to Ipswich.
Another Ipswich Arms for which we are forced to speculate regarding the derivation of the name is the one on Mann Island in Liverpool. Mann Island was an artificial island between George’s Dock and Canning Dock. Formed in 1771 with the opening of George’s Dock, it was named after an oilstone dealer called John Mann in 1784. The address of the Ipswich Arms was 2 Mann Island, & the earliest reference is in an 1819 Trades Directory of Liverpool when it was being run by an Elizabeth Hind. The last reference is in a similar directory dating from 1829 when a William Wilkinson was the publican, so it appears that the Ipswich Arms closed sometime in the 1830s. George’s Dock was too shallow for the larger vessels of the later 19th century, so it was sold off and infilled in 1899; the famous Liverpool landmark, the Liver Building, being built on the site. Thus the island no longer exists, but the name has been retained. The buildings where the Ipswich Arms was located are still shown on maps in 1908, but had gone by 1927. The name Mann is fairly common, & although there was a prominent family by that name in Ipswich, it has so far been impossible to make any connection between them & John Mann in Liverpool.
It would be nice to think that the whaler Ipswich, which operated out of Liverpool from 1802 to 1823 (see Ipswich (Whaler) 1786 section on Ships Named Ipswich page), may have had something to do with the naming of this hostelry. Although the dates roughly coincide with the existence of the pub, the whaler operated out of Queens Dock, which is further to the south of Mann Island, & no direct connection between the two can be made, so unfortunately this seems to be merely a coincidence.
Motels, Guest Houses etc (all still in existence):
The Ipswich Inn Canning Street, North Ipswich, QLD, Australia This is a student hostel.
The Ipswich Inn East Street, Ipswich, Massachusetts, USA This is a bed & breakfast in an historic building
dating back to 1863.
Founded in 1991 by Roger Greene, Ipswitch Inc. is a rapidly growing company that develops & markets software for small & medium sized businesses throughout the world. It is estimated that more than 100 million people worldwide use Ipswitch software. Products include:
The network management & monitoring software Ipswitch WhatsUp.
The file transfer software Ipswitch WS_FTP® & Ipswitch MOVEit®.
The messaging & collaboration service Ipswitch IMail.
With its head office located in Lexington, Massachusetts, Ipswitch Inc. also has U.S. offices in Alpharetta, Georgia; Augusta, Georgia; Madison, Wisconsin; Livonia, Michigan & Lehi, Utah; together with their European operation in Amsterdam under the name Ipswitch BV.
In 2010, Ipswitch Inc was placed in the top five ‘Best Places to Work’ in Massachusetts, in a survey carried out by the Boston Business Journal.
Not to be confused with the company in the section above, IPswiTch Group is based in Ipswich, England, with offices in Lower Brook Street. The IPswiTch Group has its roots in network design, which has lead them to launch a series of IT design & infrastructure related services for both the UK market & further afield.
The group offers a range of infrastructure services such as: IPswiTch Colo, IPswiTch Connect, IPswiTch Recover & IPswiTch Internet. They also offer the consultancy & management services IPswiTch Consult & IPswiTch Manage.
Ipswich Bay Company is a private investment banking firm based in Houston Texas. It has provided financial advice to middle market companies in the Southwest of the USA since 1989. Its founder & president is Donald E. Gilbert Jr. Born in Ipswich, Massachusetts he attended Boston University School of Law and the Harvard University Business School Executive Seminar. After embarking on a corporate banking career in New York City, he moved to Texas. In his own words:'I’m a values driven kind of guy and I think those values that were so important to a “historic” 20th Century New England, are more prevalent in Texas today than they are where I have come
The Ipswich Bay Company is based at 9302 Oakford Court, Houston, Texas 77024.
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Although born in London around the year 1610, William Johnson’s parents were originally from Suffolk. He became a fellow of Queens’ College, Cambridge & was ordained in 1640. Around 1635 he wrote the play Valetudinarium; a Latin comedy in five acts, which was performed at Emmanuel College, Cambridge in 1637 & at Queens’ College the following year.
The play is anti-Puritan & paints satiric portraits of the two central Puritan characters ‘Ipswichus’ & his wife ‘Lynna’ ; the names being taken from Ipswich & King’s Lynn, which were both staunchly Puritan towns at the time.
During the English Civil War (1642-51) Johnson went into exile, returning after the Restoration. He died in 1667 & was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Published in June 2010, Descendant is the first novel in the Chronicle of the Ipswich Witch series by author Miranda Bachman who lives in Northern California. Miranda’s great grandmother grew up in Ipswich, Massachusetts.
Here is Miranda’s synopsis of her first novel:
“Some people love life so much that they refuse to leave it even in death. Cleona Conant (The Ipswich Witch), who died in 1721, has refused to give up the ghost. She has been body swapping ever since her death to remain here in the mortal realm. In 1780, she devised an elaborate plan to cross the paths of her future granddaughter Raven (twenty generations down her line), with an ancient vampire named Alasdair. Aided by the use of spells, incantations and Uber-shadowing, her plan moved into motion in 1983, when Alasdair discovered Raven and set his heart on making her his companion. Through a span of nearly seventy years, he guarded her, all throughout her mortal life. However, once he gave her his eternal kiss he ultimately, and without his knowing, led their lives down a path which neither of them had the ability or knowledge to escape from what lay ahead. Does good always conquer evil, or does evil win once in awhile?
Find out in DESCENDANT: Chronicles of the Ipswich Witch.”
According to Miranda’s website, book 2 in the Chronicles of the Ipswich Witch series was to be called Retribution, whilst the third in the series was to be named Demise. As at 2013, however, these books do not seem to have been published.
For more details, including where to buy this book, visit Miranda’s website through the Links page.
Ipswich, England is featured heavily in Frederick Forsyth’s spy thriller novel The Fourth Protocol. Forsyth (born 1938) is an English author whose other books include The Day of the Jackal (1971), The Odessa File (1972), The Dogs of War (1974) & The Cobra (2010).
The book’s title derives from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968, signed by the three nuclear powers of that time, Great Britain, USA & USSR. In signing the treaty, these nations pledged to refrain from passing on nuclear technology or materials to any other nation. According to the novel, as well as this main agreement, four other secret protocols were also included, each of which was concerned with specific threats from future developments of nuclear capabilities. By signing, each nation agreed not to contravene these protocols. The first three were, by the 1980s, considered as either impossible to achieve or obsolete due to the hazard having been nullified. The Fourth Protocol banned the use of any simplified or miniature, & therefore easily transported or assembled, nuclear weapons that might be developed in the future.
Although the novel was published in 1984, the story takes place three years in the future, 1987, in the run up to a British general election. This was during the Cold War era, & at a time when US Air Force bases with nuclear missiles were still spread widely throughout Britain, with the threat of nuclear war still a strong possibility. The eighties were, however, a period which had seen the rise of a sizeable anti-nuclear campaign dedicated to unilateral disarmament.
The story revolves around a plot hatched at the very highest level in the Kremlin, codenamed Plan Aurora, in which the Soviet leader (who is never named) & an elite group including spy & defector Kim Philby, send an undercover agent, named Valeri Petrofsky, into Britain. Once there he will receive various items, including uranium & plastic explosives, smuggled into the country by couriers for the purposes of creating a small, compact nuclear weapon, which would be detonated outside a US Air Force base. In other words, Plan Aurora was in direct contravention of the Fourth Protocol.
The Soviet Union had, for some time, been infiltrating the Hard Left of the British Labour Party, & the time was now thought of as right for this extreme wing to take over the party. With the election imminent, the thinking went, any nuclear explosion close to a base where missiles were known to have been housed, would, in the minds of the British public, appear to be an accident caused by the US Air Force, & sway a significant number of people to vote for a Labour, & therefore unilateralist, government. Once in power, the Hard Left had plans to take over the party, creating a state run along the lines favoured by the Communist Party in Moscow.
The base chosen for the ‘accident’ is RAF Bentwaters, near Woodbridge, Suffolk & around 15 miles by road from Ipswich. Petrofsky, who is living in Britain under the assumed name of James Duncan Ross, hires a house in Ipswich as his base, in which he stores all the component parts for the bomb as they are delivered to him by the couriers, where it is then assembled & made ready for detonation by another Soviet agent.
The plan is discovered, however, by MI5 agent John Preston, who manages to track down the Russian. The trail leads to a house in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, where Petrofsky has gone to send an encoded message back to Moscow informing his masters that Plan Aurora is all set to be put into action. Preston & his team follow Petrofsky back to Ipswich &, with a troop from the SAS, the house is stormed & the tragedy averted. Petrofsky is killed in the process.
When Petrofsky/Ross first arrives in Ipswich, he stays at first at the Great White Horse Hotel in Tavern Street. The following day he goes in to Oxborrow’s estate agents to rent a house. The house he chooses is described as “a small, neat brick house in a small, neat brick road in a small, neat brick private-sector housing estate off the Belstead Road.” This is the estate known as ‘The Hayes’, which lies between Belstead Road & Prince of Wales Drive. Brackenhayes, Gorsehayes, Heatherhayes & Almondhayes are all named in the book & all exist. The location of the house that Petrofsky rents however, in Cherryhayes Close, is fictitious. The garden of 12 Cherryhayes Close, we learn later in the book, backs onto a garden in Brackenhayes (in reality, the properties in Brackenhayes border Gorsehayes, Heatherhayes, Laurelhayes or Belstead Road).
Preston trails Petrofsky, at a distance, back from Chesterfield via Thetford into Suffolk. The Soviet agent, unaware that he is being followed, takes the A1088 through Ixworth, then heads onto what was then the A45 (now the A14) back to Ipswich. When he arrives back in town, Whitton, Chevalier Street, Handford Bridge, the River Orwell & Ranelagh Road are all mentioned on his route back to Belstead Road & his house in Cherryhayes Close.
A film adaption of The Fourth Protocol was released in 1987, although this is only loosely based on the book. Starring Michael Caine as John Preston & Pierce Brosnan as Valeri Petrofsky, it also features Ned Beatty, Joanna Cassidy, Michael Gough & Julian Glover. It was directed by John Mackenzie & produced by Timothy Burrill. Much of the film was shot in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, with the car chase that is supposed to take place in Ipswich actually being filmed in Chelmsford, Essex. RAF Bentwaters is changed in the film to the fictional RAF Bayswater; the scenes of this being shot at RAF Upper Heyford in Oxfordshire. The Orwell Bridge, however, does appear in the film, in a scene where two helicopters fly beneath it.
Scott Was Here is the title of a book, published in 1979, by Elaine Ipswitch. The Scott in question is Elaine & Ronnie Ipswitch’s son Scott Douglas Ipswitch (13/1/61 – 16/4/76) who passed away from advanced Hodgkin’s Disease. The Ipswitch family are from the city of Fillmore, California. The book is described as “a ‘tear-jerker’ as a mother movingly recounts her son’s long fight against Hodgkin’s Disease along with the trials of perseverance the family had to push through”.
The book has also been translated into Spanish (Scott Estuvo Aqui) & German (Scott. Aber Die Hoffnung Bleibt).
A Memorial to Scott Ipswitch can be found in front of Fillmore High School.
(See also Ipswitch & Ipswich as Surnames section, below)
The Bewitching of Amoretta Ipswich is the title of a novel by Marcia Lynn McClure. Described as a Western Historical Romance, it was published in September 2012 & is the first part of a three book series collectively entitled Three Little Girls Dressed in Blue; the girls in question being Amoretta, Calliope & Evangeline Ipswich. The second book in the series, as yet unpublished, is to be called The Secret Bliss of Calliope Ipswich & is due to appear in the autumn of 2013. Although the third book in the trilogy is as yet untitled, this deals with the third sister, Evangeline, & will probably feature her name in the title. This is scheduled for release in 2014.
Marcia Lynn McClure was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Her novels have been described as “weaving captivating stories of western, medieval, regency, and contemporary amour void of brusque intimacy”. Her writing has earned her the title “The Queen of Kissing”. Her first novel was The Heavenly Surrender, which appeared in 2001. She has since become a prolific writer, averaging more than four books annually since 2007. Other titles include Shackles of Honor (2002), The Highwayman of Tanglewood (2008), A Crimson Frost (2009), The Haunting of Autumn Lake (2011) & Untethered (2012). She is also the author of the non-fiction book How to Determine a Good One: An Essay on Kissing (2011). She now lives in Rio Rancho, New Mexico.
In exclusive correspondence with Planet Ipswich, Marcia revealed that her paternal family line can be traced back to Ipswich, Massachusetts...& possibly back to Ipswich in England.
In Marcia’s own words:
“The word/name Ipswich has always intrigued me - from the moment I first heard it many years and years and years ago. I just love it! I always tell people that for some reason, “Ipswich” is one of my top 5 favorite words! In fact, it holds the #1 spot of my favorite words to actually say! Not sure why, I just love it! I find it phonetically pleasing - not to mention just plain intriguing to hear.
Therefore, being that I've always loved the word/name Ipswich, and that I have family history stretching back to at least Ipswich, Mass - well, if you know many author’s - that's usually all it takes to spark an entire story line!”
Regarding the characters with the surname Ipswich, Marcia revealed that:
“The Bewitching of Amoretta Ipswich, takes place in the old west. Judge Lawson Ipswich has moved his daughters, Amoretta, Calliope and Evangeline, west, wanting to escape the hustle and bustle of Boston. Judge Ipswich was born in Massachusetts, though his parents were immigrants from Ipswich, Suffolk, England. Though the story is about Amoretta, Judge Ipswich does end up marrying a young woman with a daughter - therefore Kizzy and her daughter, Shay - also have the surname Ipswich by the end of the book.”
This book published by The Book Collector, 1997, is the true story of this notable antiquary, who has been revealed as a persistent thief by the detailed study made by the author.
William Stevenson Fitch was by profession a chemist in Ipswich who in 1837 became the town’s postmaster, a position he held for 21 years until his death in 1859. He devoted his leisure time to studying the antiquities of Suffolk and amassed a collection of original manuscripts relating to the history of the county. When he fell on hard times he sold his collection in four auctions between 1853 and 1859. The West Suffolk Archaeological Association, of which he was a founder, purchased many of the drawings and engravings which were deposited in the museum of the society at Bury St. Edmunds. Among his collection were 156 charters bound together relating to Dodnash Priory, known as the “Dodnash Cartulary”, that he undoubtedly obtained by dubious means from the library of the Tollemache family at Helmingham Hall.
Drawing on a wide range of archival sources the author shows that Fitch was a persistent thief of books, pamphlets and manuscripts, principally from the libraries of the Tollemache family at Ham House and Helmingham Hall, and also from the Corporation chest of Ipswich itself from which came the manuscript of John Bale’s play “Kynge Johan”. Not only that, Fitch also stole many of the finest manuscripts that ended up in the collection of his friend and fellow antiquary Dawson Turner of Norfolk, who could not have been unaware of the original source of the material.
In his own right, Fitch did publish “A Catalogue of Suffolk Memorial Registers, Royal Grants, &c”, 1843, and “Ipswich and its Early Mints” 1848. He was also a regular contributor to the “Journal of the British Archaeological Association” and the “Proceedings of the East Suffolk Archaeological Society”. He also has an entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.
Ipswitch (with a ‘t’) is a surname in use today in the USA. The earliest records that we can find on the US Federal Census, date from 1880, where there seem to be two separate families; one in California, the other in Maryland.
John Ipswitch was born in Austria c 1841. He is listed as living in San Francisco, California in 1880 & his occupation is shown as saloon keeper. His wife, Elizabeth was born c 1852 in California, although her parents are listed as being from England. They have six children, all born in California:
Eugenia - born c 1869
George - born c 1871
Ada - born c 1873
Alexander - born c 1875
John - born c 1877
& an unnamed son born c 1879
There is also a record for John dating from 16th November 1870 from the US Naturalization records for the northern district of California, although this gives very little detail.
James Ipswitch, born in Poland c 1829, is listed as residing in Baltimore, Maryland in 1880. His occupation is given as a labourer & he is married to Margaret, also born in Poland c 1832. They are listed as having seven children, all born in Poland:
May - born c 1851
John - born c 1853
James Jr - born c 1855
William - born c 1856
Rabie - born c 1862
Mary - born c 1863
Ann - born c 1866
The more recent records show the name Ipswitch as occurring predominantly in California, with just a few scattered across other states, such as Oregon, Colorado & North Dakota.
The surname Ipswich (without the ‘t’) is much rarer, although one or two records for this spelling also occur.
One erroneous record appears on the US Federal Census for 1920. Here is recorded a Frank Ipswich & his family (wife Cora & their three children; Dorothy, Robert & Lennard), at that time resident in San Francisco. Frank is listed as being born in California c 1886 & his occupation is stated as automobile salesman. Most telling about this entry, though, is that his father is listed as being born in Austria, which suggests a link with John Ipswitch & family listed above. These entries seem to simply be a misspelling, however, as in the 1930 census the name is given as the more common Ipswitch. (The recorder did seem to have a bit of a problem with the letters in this hand written document; spelling at least one member of the family ‘Ispwich’)
I can find only two other records for the surname Ipswich in the USA. One is in the California Divorce Index, where one Toni L Ipswich is listed as getting divorced from Ronald G Berndt in May 1977 at Los Angeles. The other is for a June Ipswich, who is recorded in the California Birth Index as being born on 25th June 1914 in San Francisco. The mother’s name is simply listed as Miller. Whether these are also misspellings or not is uncertain.
The surnames Epswick and Apswick, can also be found in the USA & are believed to be derived from mispellings of Ipswich; “Epswick, Suffolk” was often written down as “place of origin”.
In the UK, records of people with the surname Ipswich or a variant such as Ipswick are few & far between. The earliest we have found is a Thomas Ipswich who graduated from Cambridge University in 1496. It may be, however, that this Thomas did not have a proper surname, but merely came from Ipswich.
The next two records are from the eighteenth century: An Isabella Ipswick was buried in March 1781 at Whitechapel, aged 72, whilst a child named Elizabeth Epswick, was in buried in May 1744 at Cripplegate in the City of London.
A century later, the 1851 Census records a John Ipswick living in Hackney, born 1822 at Walden (probably Saffron Walden in Essex) & described as an agricultural labourer.
Next we have an Ann Ipswich who is also recorded as “Ann Ipswick”. Since the original name is handwritten, it is uncertain which of these is correct. She was buried as “Ann Ipswick” on 28th May 1864 at Croydon St Johns in Surrey.
In the 1911 Census there are records of a Benjamin Geraint Ipswich, aged 30, born in Bangor, Co. Down, Ireland, and his wife Ellen Daisy Ipswich, aged 32, born in Dalhousie, India. They lived in Brockley, London. He was an accountant working for a gold company.
It is noticeable that the records above with “Ipswich” shown as a surname only appear in one particular census year and not preceding or subsequent years, which leads us to suspect that the real surname was different, and the enumerator may have entered it incorrectly.
A record also exists of Viscount Henry Charles Ipswich, born 6th April 1978 at Westminster, London. Nobility & royalty, however, have a habit of using their titles as surnames, & further research has revealed that this was actually Henry Charles FitzRoy, later to become the 12th Duke of Grafton, whose subsidiary title is Viscount Ipswich (see section below).
In the Caribbean, a sad but interesting fact is that Ipswich is recorded as a slave name given to Africans (all males) six times between 1817 and 1828. They are recorded in Antigua (owner Sir Christopher Codrington); Nevis (owner Mary Robinson); Jamaica, St Elizabeth Parish (2 different slaves aged 36 and 17 were given this name by their owner Thomas Smith); Jamaica, St Elizabeth Parish (owner Hampstead Pons); Jamaica, St Ann Parish (owner John Watkin Williams).
If anyone can shed any further light on the origin of the surnames Ipswich, Ipswitch or any of its variants, please email details to email@example.com. I would especially like to hear from anyone with the surname Ipswich or Ipswitch. Does anybody, anywhere else in the world have this surname? Any information at all would be greatly appreciated.
Created in 1672, the title Viscount Ipswich is one of three subsidiary titles held by the Duke of Grafton (the other two being Baron Sudbury & Earl of Euston). The family seat since 1685 has been Euston Hall in Suffolk, not far from Thetford on the border with Norfolk & more than 25 miles from Ipswich. It was inherited by the first Duke, Henry FitzRoy; the illegitimate son of King Charles II & the Duchess of Cleveland . The current Duke, Henry FitzRoy (born 1978), is the twelfth. The title Duke of Grafton is taken from the village of Grafton Regis in Northamptonshire.
(See also Islas Ipswich page)
Although, apart from the title, not actually about Ipswich, this TV comedy drama was written by Michael Palin of Monty Python fame. Loosely based on Palin’s own experiences in small English seaside towns during the 1950s, the action centres around Richard Burrill, a seventeen year old dragged away on holiday to the Suffolk coast with his parents (he very early on asks whether there actually is anything ‘east of Ipswich’). Bored due to a lack of anything to do except sit all day in a deckchair, admire church architecture & identify passing ships, Richard falls in with a group of teenagers who hang around coffee bars, listen to jazz & skiffle & chase girls (much to his parent’s dismay). This culminates in his sexual initiation at the hands of a promiscuous Dutch girl named Anna.
East of Ipswich was filmed in the Suffolk town of Southwold & starred Edward Rawle-Hicks as Richard, John Nettleton & Pat Heywood as his parents, Pippa Hinchley as Anna & Joan Sanderson as the overbearing landlady Miss Wilbraham. The programme was produced by Innes Lloyd & directed by Tristram Powell. It was first broadcast as part of the BBC’s Screen Two series on 1st February 1987. It was released on DVD in 2009.
First shown on 6th May 2010 on BBC2, as part of the History Cold Case series, Ipswich Man tells the story of the investigation into the archeological discovery of a skeleton found in Ipswich, England during the 1990s, dating back to medieval times & bearing traits indicating that he was of African origin.
The investigation, led by Sue Black, OBE, head of Anatomy and Forensic Anthropology at the University of Dundee, set out to find out why a man with these characteristics would have been in medieval Ipswich & where he originated from.
Initially thought to be of sub-Saharan origin due to the shape of the jaw, anthropological, DNA & stable isotope tests revealed that this individual was more likely to have been from North Africa. Carbon dating revealed that the skeleton originated from the period 1190 – 1300 AD, which was consistent with a medieval belt buckle found close to the body. The man is thought to have been between 40 & 60 years old at the time of his death, around 5 feet 6 inches tall, & robust in stature. He was not undernourished & there was evidence of a healthy, balanced diet. Stable isotope tests on a leg bone also showed that the man had been in a colder climate, such as Suffolk, for at least ten years prior to his death. A facial reconstruction based on a laser scanned 3D model of the skull was also produced (see photo, left).
The skeleton was one of around 150 found in a medieval cemetery discovered in the mid 1990s, when excavation work was being done near Franciscan Way, close to the site of the Greyfriars friary that had been established in the late thirteenth century. Close examination of his vertebrae revealed the man had suffered from a spinal abscess in the mid to lower thoracic area of the vertebral column, which would have effected lower limb mobility & made walking painful. It was thought that this abscess may have been the cause of the man’s death. Other skeletal remains from the same site show most of these individual’s were nearly all middle aged or elderly, some with visible signs of disease or physical disabilities, leading the experts to conclude that the graveyard was probably attached to an infirmary or medieval hospital run by the Greyfriars; the Franciscan friars being known to have been apothecaries & to have practiced medicine on a charitable basis.
During the Roman occupation, people of African origin would have come to Britain as both soldiers & merchants. Once the Romans left, however, during the fifth century AD, there would have been very few people of African origin to be seen in Britain up until the sixteenth century. So how did this man, whose features & darker skin would make him stand out in medieval England, come to be in Ipswich?
The answer may lie with the founder of the Franciscan friary in Ipswich; Sir Robert Tibetot (or Tiptoft) of Nettlestead, who died in 1298. Sir Robert is known to have been on the ninth & final crusade (1271-2), led by Prince Edward (later King Edward I). It is known that en route to the Holy Land, the knights stopped at Tunis on the North African coast. What is also known is that Thomas of Clare, who was on the same crusade as Tibetot, brought four “Saracens” back to England with him, although whether as slaves or free men is unknown; the term Saracen in this context meaning a Muslim. It is possible that Sir Robert Tibetot may have also done likewise. If this is the manner in which the man buried in the Greyfriars cemetery came to Britain, then he must have converted to Christianity at some time to have been buried in a Christian friary. Nor would it seem likely that he was poor at the time of his death, as this would have made it unlikely that he would have been in the infirmary, or buried in a single grave.
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Described as “a low speed comedy set in the fast-paced world of benefits claims investigation” The Ipswich Cuckoos is the first full length film by Optimistic Panic Productions. Written & directed by Pete Moffat & first released in 2010, the film was originally available to watch through the website ‘theipswichcuckoos.co.uk’, but can now be viewed on YouTube. Starring characters calling themselves Pete Mahatma Stalin & Jon Gorogonizer, the ‘plot’ revolves around two investigators working undercover to catch a benefit fraudster.
The film begins with a few images of Ipswich, England (‘Welcome to Ipswich’ sign/Norwich Road Bridge/an Ipswich bus etc.). Thereafter, the ‘action’ takes place almost entirely indoors or in a car, with very little clue as to location.
Be warned that the dialogue consists of a great deal of strong language & sexually explicit banter. I’d like to tell you that its redeeming feature is its humour, but sadly this isn’t the case, & after a few minutes the whole thing gets a bit tedious. If you enjoy listening to two guys talking inane rubbish for an hour & twenty minutes, then this is for you. If not....avoid!
There are two recipes that I know of that are named after Ipswich in England:-
Ipswich Almond Pudding: Sometimes simply called Ipswich Pudding, the Recipe dates back to at least the eighteenth century. Details of the ingredients & instructions vary slightly, & there are several published versions on various websites & in books. These are the basics:
Heated milk & cream are poured onto breadcrumbs. Sugar, almonds & orange or rosewater are added & left to soak in for a few minutes. Beaten eggs are added & mixed in. The mixture is then poured into a pie dish & dotted with butter, before being placed in a water filled roasting tin. It is then baked until set & served hot with cream, custard or fruit compote.
Ipswich Lemon Pie: Also sometimes known as Mrs Kent’s Lemon Pie, this recipe dates back to the eighteenth century. Mrs Kent was an Ipswich housewife, & the recipe was recorded by her friend Elizabeth Hicks, who was a collector of local recipes.
This is a type of lemon curd open tart with a shortcrust pastry base. Lemon juice, grated lemon rind, sugar & butter are heated in a saucepan until the sugar dissolves, then allowed to cool. The beaten eggs are then strained into the mixture & returned to the heat until combined. This is then poured into a pastry case, glazed with milk, & put into the oven for around half an hour until the filling has set. Can be served hot or cold.
The soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria, is commonly known in America as the 'Ipswich clam', due to their prominence in the Ipswich Bay area of Massachusetts. However, the species is found, not only in New England, but down the Atlantic coast from Canada to the southern states of the USA. They are also found on the other side of the Atlantic, including the British Isles, & have become an invasive species along the Pacific coast of America from Alaska to California.
Ipswich clams are a well known delicacy in America. They can be steamed or fried & are commonly used in clam chowder & clam bakes.
These bivalve molluscs have a very thin calcium carbonate shell, hence the name ‘soft-shell’, & are usually found buried in up to ten inches of mud on tidal mudflats.
Other colloquial names for this clam are ‘steamers’ ‘belly clam’ ‘longnecks’ & ‘piss clam’.
During the late sixteenth century, a sail making industry flourished in Ipswich; dying out during the late seventeenth century. At this time two types of sailcloth are known to have been exported bearing the names “Ipswich” & “Double Ipswich” (there was also a type called “Suffolk”). Whether any of these is synonymous with the “Mildernex” sailcloth known to have been made in Ipswich from Suffolk hemp around this period is unknown, as today no records survive to tell us what features or qualities made these different from the many other types of sail being produced at the time.
One of the first sailcloth makers in Ipswich was John Collins who, in 1574, was granted a licence by the Crown to supply the Navy. Until this time, much of the sailcloth used in England had been imported from France.
Based on the seventeenth century windows of the Ancient House in Ipswich, England, the Ipswich Window became fashionable with Victorian architects & was used in other buildings around the town; eventually spreading to other towns & cities around Britain. The Ipswich Window is an upper-storey, bow-fronted oriel or bay window which sits on supporting blocks known as corbels.
In 2006, an Ipswich (England) edition of the famous property trading board game Monopoly hit the shops. Instead of the traditional (in Britain) Mayfair, Trafalgar Square, Old Kent Road & Liverpool Street Station etc, the Ipswich edition boasts such locations as Christchurch Mansion, Wolsey Theatre, Sir Bobby Robson Statue, The Waterfront & University Campus Suffolk.
Named after the economic concept of the domination of a market by a single entity, Monopoly first came out in 1934, after inventor Charles Darrow (1889 – 1967) started selling his board game at stores in his hometown of Philadelphia, USA . Soon the game was being made & distributed by Parker Brothers. The game was brought over to Britain in the following year, where a London version was produced & marketed by John Waddington Ltd. The game is now produced by Hasbro.
Nowadays there are numerous editions of the game available throughout the world, representing cities, towns, counties, states, sports teams & various other things such as Bible Monopoly, Beatles Monopoly, Lord of the Rings Monopoly etc. In Britain, almost every town & city of any size has its own version of the game, as do many football clubs.
Scrabble Ipswich is a board game first published by Selchow & Righter in 1983. Not to be confused with the more famous game of Scrabble, Scrabble Ipswich is a word game for two to four players. Each set consists of 153 lettered tiles, 4 boards & score sheets. Each player has their own board, on which is marked a crossword grid (see photo, left). After drawing fourteen letters, the players have ten minutes to make up interconnecting words on their boards, taking advantage of letter usage bonus points. For the first minute there is the option of discarding tiles for new ones, although this incurs a penalty for each tile changed. After the ten minutes have elapsed, scores are recorded & players retain any four letters of their choice, whilst passing their board & the remaining tiles on to the player to their left. Each player then draws two more tiles & the process resumes; thus in each round the number of letters per player increases by two. This is repeated for a total of five rounds.
It is unclear exactly why the name Scrabble Ipswich was chosen for this game, although as the box states “The Crossword Game with a Real Switch”, part of the reason may be a play on the word “switch”. If anyone can shed any further light on this, please email firstname.lastname@example.org with details.
From the 1880s onwards, the agricultural engineering firm of Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies in Ipswich, England began to manufacture horse drawn potato planters at their Orwell Works on the docks. One such machine, made from 1890, was known as the Ipswich Potato Planter, which was capable of planting on previously ridged soil. (See also Ransomes section on the page).
An illustration dating from 1892 shows the horse drawn, double-action Ipswich Haymaker (see picture, right). Exactly how this differed from other haymakers of the time is unknown.
Between 1931 & 1946, A. H. Heisey & Company of Newark, Ohio produced a pattern of glassware known as ‘Ipswich’.
Founded in 1895 by Augustus H. Heisey, the firm began trading in the following year. In the early days the company produced colourless pressed glass tableware, although by the 1920s they were experimenting with many different exotic colours such as Moongleam (green), Sahara (yellow), Alexandrite (cobalt), Flamingo (pink) & Dawn (purple). From the 1930s onwards, Heisey’s produced dozens of different designs including Charter Oak, Chintz, Orchid, Plantation, Kalonyal, Ridgeleigh & Yeoman, as well as Ipswich. Heisey’s pieces can normally be recognized by their distinctive logo, an H inside a diamond, although some genuine pieces are known to exist without this mark. From the 1940s, the company also began producing glass art & were especially noted for their glass animal figurines in a variety of colours.
In 1922 the company acquired some patterns from Boston & Sandwich Glass Company of Massachusetts. One of these patterns, which had been known as the ‘Comet’, was the inspiration for Heisey’s design that was at first produced as ‘Early American Sandwich’ but soon underwent a change of name to ‘Ipswich’. The design is a swirling wave effect around a circle (see photos, above & right). Pieces produced include various styles of vases, bowls, goblets, jugs, tumblers, plates, candy jars & urns, both in clear glass & a range of colours. The pieces can have either a round or a square base. Apart from the fact that the design had its origins in Massachusetts, no other information is available at present as to why the name ‘Ipswich’ was chosen for this pattern.
A. H. Heisey & Co. closed down in 1957, but The Imperial Glass Corporation of Bellaire, Ohio bought the existing molds from Heisey in the following year & continued to use a small number of these for several years. Imperial Glass went out of business in 1984. Since 1974, the Heisey Collectors of America, Inc. have operated the National Heisey Glass Museum in Newark. Heisey glassware is now highly collectible, especially in the USA.
Around the year 1912, J & G Meakin Ltd began producing china tableware with a pattern called ‘Ipswich’. This had blue & white arches & medallions around the rim, with the rest of the item being plain white (see photos).
J & G Meakin was founded in 1851 when James and George Meakin succeeded their father in his pottery business based in Hanley, Staffordshire; one of the six major towns that joined together to form the city of Stoke-on-Trent in 1910. Based at Eagle Pottery, close to the Caldon canal, they became the largest pottery manufacturers in Britain during the late nineteenth century. During that period they became renowned for their white granite (undecorated ironstone) products, which were in imitation of contemporary French porcelain. Up until 1945 they were predominantly involved in producing inexpensive tableware, particularly for the American market.
It seems that the two brothers were quick to realise the potential of the American market, and George Meakin went to Boston in the 1850s and established their marketing centre in that city. Living in Boston he would have been aware of the “cultural and artistic” significance of Ipswich, Massachusetts in late 19th century America. Since the company’s main pitch was towards the American market rather than the domestic British market, it made commercial sense to go with an American theme, and this is probably why the name Ipswich was chosen for this particular design.
During the twentieth century the firm became known for the “Sol” wares, which were produced between 1912 and 1963. The company was taken over by the Wedgwood Group in 1970, although production under the Meakin name continued until 2000, at which time the Eagle Pottery was used for the production of Johnson Bros pottery; a firm with which J & G Meakin had long standing affiliations. The Eagle Pottery finally shut in 2004 & was demolished the following year.
Two companies in the USA advertise a wood stain colour named ‘Ipswich Pine’:
Rustoleum Corp. of Vernon Hills, Illinois have a product in their Varathane range described as a Premium Gel Stain (see photo, left).
Minwax of New York also have a wood finish called ‘Ipswich Pine’ (catalogue no. 221), which is described as “an oil-based wood stain that provides long-lasting wood tone color”, & is recommended for use on furniture, woodwork, doors, floors, cabinets & accessories.
No definite details are currently available as to why the name Ipswich has been chosen, although Gordon Harris, on his ipswich.wordpress.com blog has the following theory concerning the origins of the name:
“Most of the pine trees in colonial America (Northeast U.S.) are Eastern white pine (Pinus Strobus), a quick-growing and easily workable lumber that was used in much early construction, along with American Chestnut. Freshly cut white pine is creamy white but aged lumber can acquire a golden or reddish tone and is sometimes called “pumpkin pine.”
Other genus of pine are rare in the Northeast, but Pitch pine (Pinus Rigida) dominates the pine barrens found in southeastern Massachusetts and New Jersey. Castle Neck in Ipswich MA has one of the largest stands of pitch pine on the Massachusetts North Shore. The coarse knotty wood of these trees contains a large amount of resin (pine tar) that was used for pitch. The wood was used primarily for ship building and railroad ties because the high resin content preserves it from decay.”
Now this is a strange one. Evangeline Ghastly is a collectable gothic doll inspired by Tim Burton’s The Corpse Bride, The Addams Family, & even, apparently, Barbra Streisand. The dolls, together with a large selection of outfits & accessories are marketed by Wilde Imagination Inc., who are based in Mullica Hill, New Jersey, USA. Her creator is Joe Petrollese & the dolls are sculpted by renowned fashion doll artist and designer Robert Tonner. But the really strange thing about Evangeline Ghastly is that the tale woven by her American creators around her has it that she was born & lives in Ipswich, England. The story is that she was born on 24th April 1924 in the attic of the ancestral home of the Ghastly family; the fictional Barkley Manor, located near the cemetery, where she still lives, alone, to this day. Evangeline is a mortician’s assistant at Mort’s Mortuary. She collects rocks & has a pet skunk named Mouette, a bat named Bella & a cat called Valentine.
The original Evangeline Ghastly doll is 19 inches tall, ball jointed & made from luminescent pale resin, individually hand-poured, strung, and hand painted. Later versions are also now manufactured from high quality vinyl.
There are many different outfits available for Evangeline Ghastly, with names such as Cemetery Stroll Skirt, Shrouded in Darkness Blouse & the Graveside Picnic Outfit. Accessories include Raining Bats & Skunks (umbrella), Rest in Peace Carry-all, & a host of wigs, shoes & boots. Also available her models of her pets Mouette, Bella & Valentine. Many of the pieces, & the outfits, are limited editions only. The dolls & all the accessories can be purchased from Wilde Imagination’s website, where visitors can also read about Evangeline’s ‘life’, see her family tree & view her diary entries.
One of the vinyl versions of Evangeline on the market is a 17 inch tall doll named Ipswich Fog (see picture, above). A limited edition of only 350, Ipswich Fog’s outfit consists of layers of deep grey chiffon, matching lamé underlay, and a delicate lace overlay, together with a matching high-collared cape, stockings, matching shoes, and designer jewellery. She also comes with a changeable red wig.
One of the accessories also available for the resin dolls, are a pair of boots called the Ipswich Lace-ups (see picture, right).
So why was Ipswich chosen as the location for Evangeline's hometown? Creator Joe Petrollese explained to the Ipswich Evening Star newspaper on 14th August 2007:
“I thought that the small towns depicted in English murder mystery shows seemed to have a lot of history as well as mystery and might be an interesting place to set her story.
“I then went online and did a little research and came up with Ipswich. I read that it was one of the oldest places in England and that made it seem even more interesting. I pictured it with large manor houses and that the town could possibly be haunted.
“Being from Ipswich made it very easy to give her a very old family history.
“Since the town is extremely old she could have a family tree in Ipswich that went back to the 1500s”
He also added:
“Myself and Evangeline feel honoured to be part of Ipswich.”
Two shoe manufacturers in the USA have adopted Ipswich as a name for one of their range of shoewear styles. These are the Bostonian Ipswich Oxford Shoe and the Florsheim Ipswich Kiltie Loafer.
In the 19th century there was a shift in industrial development to textiles, lace production and shoe making in Ipswich, Massachusetts. However, the latter two were very much cottage industries and Ipswich was not particularly renowned for its shoe industry. Nevertheless, the name of Ipswich had become known for its cultural, artistic and generally “up-market” image. This is reflected in the use of “Ipswich” as a brand name for other quality products sold in North America (see Ipswich – Glass Pattern and Ipswich- China Pattern, above). The name “Ipswich” would not have the same resonance of quality in either Britain or Australia!
The Bostonian Ipswich Oxford Shoe (see photo, right) is recognised as a quality men’s dress shoe. It has a smooth, full grain leather upper with a gently squared toe, and is appropriate for office use and as a dress shoe for special occasions. The same shoe is sometimes advertised as the Bostonian Ipswich Blücher Shoe. The meanings of the terms Oxford and Blücher vary geographically; in North America the “Oxford” is used to refer to any “dressy” style of lace-up shoe, including the “Blücher”. Elsewhere outside North America, especially in Britain, the “Oxford” and “Blücher” (sometimes called the “Derby”) describe different types of shoe.
In Britain, the Oxford style was popularised at Oxford University in 1800. An Oxford is a style of laced shoe characterised by the bottom part of the shoelace eyelet side pieces being stitched down to the upper part of the shoe so that the bottom parts cannot flap up, a construction method that is also sometimes referred to as “closed lacing”. This is considered to be the most formal class of dress shoe. A Blücher (or Derby) is a style of shoe characterised by the bottom part of the shoelace eyelet side pieces being able to flap up from the shoe. This construction method is known as “open lacing”. It was named after the 18th century Prussian general who introduced this improved style of footwear for his soldiers and it became popular in Europe. It also became popular in Britain in the 1850s where it became known as the Derby, and was considered more appropriate for casual wear or working day use.
The Bostonian Shoe Manufacturing & Retail Co was founded as the Commonwealth Shoe & Leather Co. in 1884 by Charles H Jones in Weston, Mass., a suburb in the west of Boston. Its Bostonian range of shoes soon gained recognition for their quality, comfort and durability that this name was adopted for the company. Bostonian Shoes were made in the 1930s to the mid 1960s at Whitman, Massachusetts, and then moved to Newton Upper Falls in Boston. In 1979 the company was taken over by C&J Clark, a British shoe manufacturing company. As part of Clarks Companies North America, which is based in Massachusetts, the Bostonian brand name continues today. We have not been able to find out when the “Ipswich” style was first introduced by the company.
The Ipswich Kiltie Loafer (see photo, left) is manufactured by The Florsheim Shoe Company. This company has been going since 1892 when Milton Florsheim began producing shoes in a small factory located in Chicago, Illinois. As far as we can tell, this company has no connection with any Ipswich, so we assume that the name has been selected by association with the reputation of the Bostonian Ipswich as a dress shoe. The terminology for this type of footwear will generally be unfamiliar to those on the European side of the Atlantic, so a brief explanation follows.
The Norwegians were producing leisure slippers of the moccasin style in the 1930s and began exporting them to the rest of Europe, where they were taken up by visiting Americans. A shoe manufacturer in New Hampshire started making shoes based on this design in the 1930s and gave them the trade name of loafers. This soon became the general term used in North America for a step-in leather shoe with a broad flat heel and an upper resembling a moccasin. In Britain and Europe these are referred to as slip-on shoes.
The Kiltie is a casual Oxford shoe with a fringed tongue that flaps over the laces and eyelets on the upper part of the shoe. It originated in Scotland as an adaptation of the ghillie shoe which is a shoe without a tongue and the laces are wrapped round the ankle or around the bottom of the leg. Both shoes were designed to be worn in the wet and muddy environment of the Scottish countryside. The advantage of both styles was to prevent water and mud getting trapped between the tongue and lacing, thereby weighing down the shoe. The shoes were often worn with kilts (hence the name), or plus fours, and the kiltie became very popular as a golf shoe. It is said to have been introduced to the USA by the Duke of Windsor when he was the Prince of Wales. The name has since been transferred to slip-on shoes in North America that have a tongue or tassel on the upper part of the shoe.
Writing instruments designed to carry their own supply of ink had existed in principle since the 17th century. The oldest surviving fountain pen was designed by a Frenchmen named M. Bion and dated 1702. However, progress in developing a reliable pen was slow until the mid-19th century. The modern metal pen nib was invented in 1828, but it was not until 1884 that the American Lewis Waterman patented the first practical fountain pen that could be mass-produced.
Frank Jarvis and Thomas Garner worked for the De La Rue Company, the leading British fountain pen manufacturer at the turn of the 19th century. Drawing on the experience they had gained at De La Rue, the two started their own business in 1905 at 13 Paternoster Row, London EC1, next to St Paul’s Cathedral. They called the company “Conway Stewart”. It is believed that the name derives from a popular vaudeville act of the day. “Conway and Stewart” were a comedy double act who appeared at Collins Music Hall in Islington.
Jarvis and Garner had identified a market niche for attractive and reliable writing instruments at an affordable price. They had a single aim to produce elegant, beautiful, yet functional writing instruments. Each Conway Stewart fountain pen was made in England by hand, using traditional techniques, combining British craftsmanship and using only the highest quality materials, including hallmarked solid 18ct gold and sterling silver.
The 1920s saw a rapid development of the Conway Stewart product line. Pens of several different types of filling mechanisms, materials and sizes were offered for sale. In addition, the company sought out a market where a product line was made especially for a specific company. The Gyppeswyk Fountain Pen was made for W.S. Cowell Ltd of Ipswich, England, between 1932 and 1942. The length of this pen was 12.8 cm; the clip and thin lollipop lever were nickel and both had the intertwined CS logo. The nib was guaranteed 14ct. The barrel was marked “GYPPESWYK” with the name of the company below.
The business model proved successful for Conway Stewart and its market share increased at the expense of other established manufacturers. The years after World War II proved difficult because of shortages of materials, but the company managed to survive by continuing to offer good reliable pens at reasonable prices. However, by the 1960s, refinements in ballpoint pen production gradually ensured its dominance over the fountain pen for casual use. Nibs, which had been 14ct gold until this time, were generally replaced by stainless steel. The company tried to compete by introducing ball point pens to its range, but its financial health continued to deteriorate and the original company was wound-up in 1975. The name was revived in 1998 and it caters for the high-end of the writing instrument market, with a range characterised by the use of precious metals, and the production of limited edition fountain pens.
Today the fountain pen is seen as a collectible item or a status symbol, rather than an everyday writing tool. A Gyppeswyk fountain pen in good condition can fetch a high price at auctions because of its rarity value.
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The Coremus ® IM Nail Extractor System (also known as the Ipswich Nail Extractor) includes a screwdriver set for all types of screws. However, it is not your normal mechanic’s tool kit, nor is it an instrument of torture. It is a far more serious piece of equipment used by orthopaedic surgeons.
We need to explain some technical terms first. “IM” stands for “intramedullary”. This is the medical term meaning the inside of a bone. An “intramedullary rod”, also known as an “intramedullary nail” (IM Nail) or a “Küntscher nail” (after its inventor), is a metal rod forced into the medullary cavity of a bone to treat bone fractures in orthopedic surgery. IM nails have been used since 1939 to treat fractures of long bones of the body. Prior to that, treatment of such fractures was limited to traction or plaster, both of which required long periods of inactivity. IM nails allowed earlier return to activity, often within weeks, especially useful for soldiers and athletes, since the nails share the load with the bone, rather than entirely supporting the bone.
The problem and reason for the name Ipswich Nail Extractor are best explained by Jeffrey Hallett, who was then consultant orthopaedic surgeon at Ipswich Hospital in Suffolk, England, in an interview given in December 2001: “The Ipswich Extractor Kit is used to remove the metal ‘nails’ that are inserted inside fractured bones temporarily, the size of which can change depending on which hospital a patient is treated at.” Mr Hallett said: “It is not too difficult to put the nails in - you just hammer them - but when you try to get them out it is not so easy. Quite often we would hear about patients having an operation to remove a nail that has been put in by surgeons in a different part of the country or overseas, and the operation has had to stop because they had not got the right equipment. There may be 20 different sizes of thread used in different hospitals around the world and in Britain, and what we have done is to make a set of sockets that can screw any of the nails out.”
Jeffrey Hallett, who has since retired, had been at Ipswich Hospital since 1983, and said that he had the idea for the kit in 1989 when he began working as a technical committee chairman for the British Standards Institute (BSI) and realised the effect using different sizes of nails sometimes had on patients. He designed what has been described as “a revolutionary toolkit” to help orthopaedic surgeons, and convinced the orthopaedic implant manufacturer, Newsplint plc, to market it as the Ipswich Nail Extractor, named after his place of work. Jeffrey Hallett has been recognised as a “pioneer in patient care” by the British Medical Association for his invention.
In 2012 Newsplint plc renamed this instrument kit as the Coremus ® IM Nail Extractor System, although it is usually referred to by its old name. It consists of 34 re-usable dedicated extractor bolts. These extractor bolts will remove in excess of 80 nails of various manufacturers’ designs, both old and new. In addition there is a comprehensive range of other instruments associated with the safe removal of IM nails whose origins are not known.
The brand name “Ipswich” for this cosmetic product, marketed by the company Youngevity, seems to be another case where North Americans associate “quality” and “artistic” with Ipswich, Massachusetts, as there does not seem to be any other link with the communities so named. The company specialises in products made from mineral pigments and other natural ingredients, free from chemicals, dyes, preservatives and irritants.
In the horticultural world a “variety” is a naturally occurring plant which is different from others within a species, and a “cultivar” is the same, except that it has been ‘man made’. However, it is common for gardening outlets to refer to them all as “varieties”, and we have adopted this practice, although all of the following are actually cultivars. Where we have been unable to find an image of the actual plant, we have used an image of a similar variety.
Dianthus is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native mainly to Europe and Asia. Common names include carnation (D. caryophyllus), pinks (D. plumarius) and sweet william (D. barbatus). The name Dianthus was cited by the Greek botanist Theophrastus in the 4th century BC; it takes its name from the Greek words dios (‘god’) and anthos (‘flower’). The first recorded modern use of this scientific name was in 1849. The earliest common name for the various plants of the genus Dianthus was “pinks”. This was not because of the colour of the petals but because of their jagged edge (see photograph). In the 13th century, “to pink” a piece of cloth or leather was to cut or punch a hole in a zigzag manner along the edge. Although the word is now archaic, this meaning is still preserved today in “pinking shears” which are scissors with a serrated blade, used to cut a zigzag edge in fabric. “Pinks” as a flower is in the written record from 1566. The colour pink is actually named after the flower since, as a colour, it is not recorded before 1669.
An individual Dianthus plumarius ‘Ipswich Pink’ clearly showing the jagged edge
Dianthus species have been extensively bred and hybridised to produce many thousands of cultivars for garden use, in all shades of white, pink, yellow and red, with a huge variety of flower shapes and markings. D. plumarius, the parent of all pinks, has been cultivated in Britain since 1560. ‘Plumarius’ means ‘feathery’ pertaining to the shape of the petals. Its variability of colour led to the introduction of a seed-raised strain which were called ‘Ipswich Pinks’ in the first half of the twentieth century by Joseph Sangster, breeder and proprietor from 1913 to 1952 of the Ipswich, England, based seed and plant merchants Thompson & Morgan.
Dianthus ‘Ipswich Pinks’ are considered to be the traditional English-style “pinks”. They are evergreen hardy perennials and grow to a height of around 9 inches and can spread over an area of up to 30 inches. Tightly knit masses of single, fragrant flowers cover the foliage mound in spring until late summer in a mixture of colours ranging from red to pink to white. The fragrant one-inch blooms often have a dark rose-red centre, or dark stripes or markings on the petals. The flowers are rotate shaped with scalloped edges and have a pleasant clove scented smell. It has a green stem and leaves. They are ideal for borders, rockeries and containers.
Dianthus plumarius ‘Ipswich Pinks Mixed’
Thompson & Morgan were established in 1855. It began with a baker’s son, William Thompson, who maintained a small garden behind the bakery in Tavern Street, Ipswich. From the back garden he moved to a nursery at the edge of Ipswich. William Thompson produced his first seed catalogue in 1855. He entered into partnership with John Morgan, a businessman who was able to offer capital resources that enabled the expansion of the business into three nurseries. Thompson specialised in growing rare and unusual plants, seeds of which were sent to him from many overseas countries. His efforts made him one of the most distinguished plantsmen of his day and he was honoured by the Royal Horticultural Society with the Victorian Medal of Honour in 1896. He died in 1903 at the age of 80 but he had lived to see Thompson & Morgan become one of the country’s largest seed firms with a reputation for introducing more species and varieties to the gardening public than any other seed company. Joseph Sangster succeeded William Thompson as the leading plantsman at Thompson & Morgan, and in 1913 he became a partner in the business, and took over the company completely when, in 1921, John Morgan died. Today Thompson & Morgan has become one of the UK’s largest mail order Seed and Plant companies, and also exports around the world.
In 1929 another variety named Dianthus ‘Ipswich Crimson’ was also being advertised in Thompson & Morgan’s catalogue. It is described as a “grand new variety” with “deep crimson flowers”. The only reference to this variety still being in existence today comes from the Sussex Country Gardener website, which lists the Dianthus ‘Ipswich Crimson’ as a herbaceous perennial with red double flowers and pale serrated foliage, which thrives on well drained chalk soils.
Dianthus ‘Ipswich Mulberry’ is yet another cultivar listed, but no further details are given.
Dianthus ‘Crimson Treasure’
The first Fuchsia (Fuchsia triphylla) discovered by a European was on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola in about 1696-1697 by the French botanist Charles Plumier. He named the new genus after the renowned German botanist Leonhart Fuchs, and gave the first description of the plant in 1703. It was introduced to Britain in 1788. The first attempts to raise hybrids began in 1825, but it was not until 1832 that English growers were really able to raise new varieties of this plant.
All but one Fuchsia are shrubs; they belong to the family Onagraceae which is characterised by flowers with usually four sepals and petals. Fuchsia flowers are very decorative and they have a pendulous “teardrop” shape. They have four long, slender sepals and four shorter, broader petals; in many species the sepals and petals are in bright contrasting colours that attract the hummingbirds which pollinate them, but the colours can vary and hybrids have been raised in various combinations. There are currently almost 110 recognised species of Fuchsia. The vast majority are native to South America, but with a few occurring north through Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean. The number of varieties that have been raised is in excess of 11,000.
The Fuchsia ‘Pride of Ipswich’ is an upright variety that has dark pink sepals and a lavender corolla (the central petals). It was bred by Edwin Goulding in 2000, and was named after the Ipswich in Suffolk, England, near to his home. Edwin Goulding is a nurseryman and fuchsia hybridist, and has been, at various times, show manager and editor for the British Fuchsia Society and president of the East Anglian Fuchsia Fellowship. He has written extensively for magazines and lives in East Anglia, England. The Fuchsia ‘Pride of Ipswich’ has been on the Royal Horticultural Society database since 2005.
The same name ‘Pride of Ipswich’ has been applied to a hybrid cultivar of the genus Neoregelia, but the name here refers to the Ipswich in Queensland, Australia (see below)
Upright Fuchsia ‘Little Beauty’ – sepals bright red, corolla lavender blue.
The name ‘Ipswich Beauty’ (also named as the ‘Beauty of Ipswich’) was first used in 1835 for a variety of dahlia, a genus of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family. It was described as “white with rosy pink edge” by the ‘Floricultural Cabinet and Florist’s Magazine’ (London, 1835), and was grown by John Harris of Upwey in Dorset who advertised it in the ‘Annual Dahlia Register, 1836’. It was exhibited at shows over the next few years, but then seems to have lost popularity. It is no longer bred.
The largest family of flowering plants, the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprises about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species. The second plant bearing the name ‘Ipswich Beauty’ also belongs to this family, and is a member of the Gaillardia genus. This is an annual and perennial wildflower, native to northern and western North America, where it grows in many habitats. It is drought-tolerant and will grow under very harsh and dry conditions, forming mounds 8 to 18 inches high. The single or double flowers resemble daisies and grow singly on wiry stems. They are 2 to 3 inches across. It is commonly called the blanket flower in reference to the resemblance of its rich and warm flower colours to the blankets woven by Native Americans. The genus Gaillardia was recorded in 1788 by French botanist Auguste de Bondaroy and was named after Antoine René Gaillard de Charentonneau, an 18th century French magistrate and patron of botany. This plant was introduced into Britain in 1812 after it became better known to the English-speaking world from descriptions and collections made by Lewis and Clark during their famous expedition across North America from 1804 to 1806.
All garden varieties originate from Gaillardia aristata, a beautiful daisy like flower with an orange-red centre and petals that comprise a great range of colour from pale primrose, bright yellow to orange, and various shades of crimson-red to burgundy, all flowering from June to October. Gaillardia x grandiflora is the accepted name of a hybrid species in the genus Gaillardia that was bred in 1857 by Louis van Houtte (1810-1876), the notable Belgian horticulturist, at his nurseries in Ghent. Gaillardia aristata with Gaillardia pulchella is the parent of Gaillardia x grandiflora from which several cultivars have been created. One of these is ‘Ipswich Beauty’. This variety grows up to 3 feet and has large crimson with deep yellow edged petals. It is recognised as an “old English variety” that was well established before the turn of the 19th century. It is not known whether its name is related to that of the dahlia variety mentioned beforehand, nor what relationship either flower had to the town of Ipswich.
Antique Print (pre-1900) showing Gaillardia ‘Ipswich Beauty’ at bottom
The name ‘Ipswich Gem’ was first used for a rose bred by Robert Ward who lived at Ipswich, England. It was advertised in ‘Curtis
’s Botanical Magazine’ in 1867; this is the longest running botanical magazine dating from 1787. It is described as a hybrid perpetual with a large double bloom: “brilliant rosy carmine; large and very double petals, smooth and beautifully disposed, with a fine outline; very distinct in growth and foliage”. It was advertised widely for a few years, but the lineage has subsequently been lost.
Kniphofia ‘Ipswich Gem’ was bred in 1934 by Frances Perry of Perry’s Hardy Plant Farm, Enfield, England. It is described as between 32 to 36 ins. tall, “a pretty shade of rich canary-yellow with bold spikes”. Frances Mary Perry MBE VMH (1907–93) was a botanist, writer and broadcaster, born Frances Everett in Enfield, Middlesex, where she lived most of her life at Bulls Cross. Her interest in plants took her to Swanley Horticultural College (now Wye College, part of the University of London), and in 1927 she was employed by Amos Perry, a local plant nurseryman. She married Perry’s son Gerald (d.1964) an expert on ferns and water plants. Frances Perry soon became a recognised expert on hardy perennials and is known for her writings about them.
Kniphofia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Xanthorrhoeaceae, subfamily Asphodeloideae. There are 70 species of Kniphofia that are native to Africa of which 47 are found in the eastern areas of South Africa. They are grown in temperate conditions around the world. All plants produce dense, erect spikes of upright, brightly coloured flowers well above the foliage. Kniphofia are commonly called red-hot pokers, in reference to their upright silhouette and reddish colouring, which gets more intense towards the tip. However, the small, tubular flowers are produced in shades that range from red, orange, yellow to lime green and cream, and are often bicoloured, depending on the species; numerous cultivars and hybrids have been developed from species originating in South Africa.
The Kniphofia genus was named in 1794 by botanist Conrad Moench (1745–1805) after Johann Hieronymus Kniphof (d.1763), another German botanist. In 1804, when introduced to Britain, it was known as Tritoma (from the seed capsule splitting into three valves), and it was not until 1854 that ‘Curtis’s Botanical Magazine’ used the name Kniphofia. It was also mistakenly thought to be a member of the Liliaceae or lily family, hence another alternative name for this plant is that of the torch lily.
Kniphofia Tawny King
‘Ipswich Town’ is a variety of the Pelargonium genus, better known as geraniums. It was bred as a miniature geranium by the late Ray Bidwell of Suffolk in 1976 who named many of his introductions after Suffolk villages; this one seems to have been named after his favourite football team. (A miniature geranium is one that is very unlikely to exceed 13cm (5in) in height; their leaves may be tiny, but their flowers can be quite large and striking.)
Pelargonium is a genus of flowering plants which includes about 200 species of perennials, succulents, and shrubs, commonly known as geraniums (in the United States better known as storksbills because the seed head looks like a stork’s beak). Pelargonium species are evergreen perennials indigenous to Southern Africa, and are drought and heat tolerant, but can survive only minor frosts. They are extremely popular garden plants, grown as bedding plants in temperate regions. The first species of Pelargonium known was a native of South Africa. It was probably brought to the Netherlands before 1600 on ships which stopped at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1631 the plant was introduced to England. It was named Pelargonium by Johannes Burman in 1738 from the Greek word for “stork”.
Confusingly, Geranium is the correct botanical name of a separate genus of related plants often called cranesbills or hardy geraniums. Both genera belong to the family Geraniaceae. The hardy geranium is found throughout the temperate regions of the world, but mostly in the eastern part of the Mediterranean hence the name is derived from the Greek word which means “crane” because it bears a fruit similar in shape to the bill of a crane.
Dwarf Pelargonium 'Claydon'
‘Ipswich Gold’ & ‘Pride of Ipswich’ are two hybrid cultivars of the genus Neoregelia, created by Alan Freeman of Queensland in 2001 and 2000 respectively. The late Alan Freeman started hybridising and naming his plants in 1982. He is said to have created over 10,000 hybrids. It was not until he came to an arrangement with Keith Golinski of Palmwoods in Queensland that these became commercially available. After some few years of pricking out the seedlings, Keith Golinski was eventually ready to release them under the name of ‘Alan Freeman’ from his company, the Bromeliads of Australia, better known as the “Bromagic Nursery”. This is at Palmwoods on the Sunshine Coast, 90 km (55 miles) north of Brisbane and Ipswich, Queensland.
Neoregelia is a genus of the family Bromeliaceae, subfamily Bromelioideae. The genus is named after Eduard August von Regel (1815-1892), who was director of St. Petersburg Botanic Gardens in Russia. There are 112 species of Neoregelia, with more than 5,000 registered cultivars (a variety of a plant that has been created intentionally through cultivation). Most species have broad, flat leaves, many of which are brightly coloured, & some show striping or banding.
The Bromeliaceae, commonly known as the bromeliads, is a family of flowering plants native mainly to the tropics & sub-tropics of the Americas. There are around 3,170 species. The bromeliads include such diverse species as Spanish moss, pineapple, & a large number of desert dwelling succulents.
Ipswich Gold Pride of Ipswich
Launched in 2004, to commemorate the centenary of Ipswich, Queensland becoming a city, the Ipswich Centenary is a hybrid variety of hibiscus. Grown & hybridized by Alfred T Westerman, & registered with the Australian Hibiscus Society Inc. in January 2007, the Ipswich Centenary is a dense bush that grows to a height of three to four feet, with a large flat orange/apricot flower, around eight inches in diameter, of the bloom type known as a ‘single cartwheel’. It is a hybrid of the Tarentella & Tamibon varieties.
There are around 300 species of hibiscus, which is a genus in the malvaceae or mallow family of flowering plants. They are native to warm-temperate, subtropical & tropical regions of the world. The genus includes both annual & perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs & small trees.
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Hemerocallis ‘Ipswich’ was registered by the Russell Gardens Nursery, Pennsylvania, in 1949. It grows to a height of 36 ins (91 cm) and is a dark red flower with a violet centre.
Daylily is the common name of a plant in the genus Hemerocallis. The name Hemerocallis comes from the Greek words (hemera = day) and (kalos = beautiful). The scientific and common name both allude to the fact that the flowers typically last no more than 24 hours. The flowers of most species open in early morning and wither during the following night, possibly replaced by another one on the same stalk the next day. Hemerocallis is now placed in the family Xanthorrhoeaceae, subfamily Hemerocallidoideae, when formerly it was part of the Liliaceae family which includes true lilies.
Originally from the orient, daylilies have been cultivated for over 4,000 years. They were originally introduced to Europe not as an ornamental plant but as a culinary and medicinal herb. The flowers and buds of old-fashioned varieties are still used today to make a tasty and colourful addition to salads. These bright, exotic flowers are produced in such profusion that it is not a drawback that the flower only lasts a day since another plant will be in bloom. It means the plants always retain a freshness, as the flowers never hang fading and waning on the plant. They range in colour from white through yellows and orange to the deepest, richest reds. They flower for such a long period of the summer that they remain a constant feature while other flowers appear and disappear around them.
Daylily cultivar flowers are highly diverse in colour and form, as a result of hybridization efforts of gardening enthusiasts and professional horticulturalists. There are now over 60,000 registered cultivars. Daylily breeding has been a specialty in the United States, where daylily heat- and drought-resistance has made them garden standbys since the 1950s.
The common Tawny Daylily (h. fulva) found along the roadsides around New Ipswich NH.
The Dahlia ‘Ipswich’ is recorded in the World Directory of Dahlias as being introduced by 1961. It is noted as a medium cactus dahlia type, 6 to 8ins. in diameter, pink in colour. No other information is provided.
Pictured left is the F-111C tactical strike jet named City of Ipswich (ADF serial number A8-144), which was stationed at RAAF Base Amberley in Ipswich, Queensland from 1973 until 2010. (see also Amberley in the section of the & Localities page)
The F-111 was a twin-engine swing-wing aircraft, which could take off and land at relatively low speeds with the wings swept forward, then fly at more than twice the speed of sound with its wings tucked back. It could fly close to the ground at supersonic speeds, as well as being capable of reaching altitudes of over 60,000 ft. It was capable of carrying nuclear, as well as conventional weapons.
Developed in the 1960s by the US defence contractor General Dynamics, it first entered service in 1967 with the United States Air Force. In 1973 the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) ordered the F-111C, which was an export version for Australia, combining the initially produced F-111A with longer F-111B wings and strengthened FB-111A landing gear. They were operated by No. 6 Squadron based at RAAF Amberley for nearly four decades until 2010, when they were replaced by the Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornet on an interim basis, pending delivery of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, initially scheduled for 2012 but since delayed due to problems with the F-35 program.
In December 2010, the RAAF decommissioned its F-111s, 23 of which had their fuselages buried at Swanbank landfill site near Ipswich in November 2011, including A8-144 City of Ipswich.
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The Boeing F/A-18F Super Hornet is a twin-engine, carrier-based, multirole fighter aircraft. The tandem seat F/A-18F, together with its single seat variant, the F/A-18E, are larger & more advanced versions of the F/A-18 Hornet. The Super Hornet is equipped with General Electric F414 afterburning turbofan engines, has an internal 20 mm gun & can carry both air-to-air & air-to-surface missiles. Additional fuel can be carried in external tanks & the aircraft can be equipped with an aerial refueling system for the refueling of other aircraft.
Designed and initially produced by McDonnell Douglas, the Super Hornet first flew in 1995, with full production commencing in September 1997 after the merger of McDonnell Douglas & Boeing. The Super Hornet entered service with the US Navy in 1999, replacing the Grumman F-14 Tomcat.
In 2007 the Australian government signed a contract for twenty four F/A-18Fs, as an interim replacement for their aging F-111s. On 26th March 2010, the RAAF’s first five Super Hornets arrived at their home base, RAAF Amberley in Ipswich, Queensland. The first plane to touch down on Australian soil has been named City of Ipswich (A44-202), in honour of the relationship between the base & the city.
The first RAAF Super Hornets squadron became operational in December 2010. Australia is the only nation apart from the United States to operate the Super Hornet.
We list this one because an alternative name sometimes given is the Ipswik River, (no doubt because of the similarity of spelling with Ipswich), and since the first ever descent of this river was made in the summer of 2013, some people may well associate it with “Ipswich”.
The Ipewik River is located at 68° 21’ N 165° 44’ W in the county of North Slope, Alaska. It is considered to be North America’s most northwestern river. It is a major tributary flowing from the north into the Kukpuk River. The latter flows into the Chukchi Sea between Alaska and Siberia at the Marryat Inlet, where the settlement of Point Hope is situated. These two rivers drain the Lisburne Peninsula, a little known area of Alaska.
In the summer of 2013 an expedition was launched to descend the 135 mile long Ipewik River to collect data on the effects of climate change, and collate information on the wildlife and flora of the region. The two canoeists, Tyler Williams and John Govi, were supported by a back-up team of two, and completed the journey in 10½ days over July and August 2013. The total mileage travelled was 220 of which 185 were river miles, including tributaries of the Ipewik (see photograph). Although there was plenty of evidence to indicate that indigenous peoples had used the river for hunting forays, this expedition was probably the first to travel from source to mouth. Further photographs of the expedition can be seen on the expedition leader’s website: “The Lisburne Traverse”. Sponsors were Kokatat, Osprey, Werner and Sazzi (drysuits, kayak and cold weather gear).
The name is first recorded in 1890 as Ippewik. This is derived from the Inuit word “ipivik” meaning “drowning-place” from “ipi” = to drown, and “vik” = place. It is just coincidence that this place-name ending in both Inuit and Norse is similar, since “wic” as found in Ipswich also means “place”.
The Ipewik River has also given its name to a stratigraphical unit found in the western part of the Brooks Range that runs west to east across northern Alaska. It consists of about 100 metres of poorly exposed soft, dark, maroon and grey clay shale, mudstone, organic shale, coquinoid limestone and local elements of resistant fine-to medium-grained quartzose sandstone. This Formation is made distinctive by the 2 metre thick reddish weathered “limestone coquinas containing highly compressed Buchia pelecypods”. Coquinas are sedimentary rocks composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported, abraded, and sorted fragments of the shells of molluscs, trilobites, brachiopods, or other invertebrates, and the “Buchia pelecypods” are a genus of bivalve molluscs such as oysters, clams, mussels and scallops. The Ipewik Formation is believed to have been deposited on a fairly inactive, shoaling marine shelf or lagoon in the Lower Cretaceous period, between 145 to 130 million years ago. (“Ipewik Formation” article in the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 1976 by R. C. Crane & V. D. Wiggins).
As you are probably aware, Gippeswick, or any one of its variant spellings, is the ancient name from which Ipswich is derived. As this section is devoted to places with names similar to Ipswich, we felt that a mention had to be made of Gipsvika, although the similarity of the names is nothing more than coincidence. The name translates as “gypsum bay” from Norwegian “gips” = gypsum and “vik” = bay or inlet.
Gipsvika is a bay in Svalbard, the group of islands that make up the northernmost part of Norway within the Arctic Circle. Located at 78° 25’ 38.4” N 16° 32’ 20.5” E, Gipsvika is situated on the northern side of Sassenfjorden. To the north, the river Gipsdalselva flows down the 14 mile (22 km) long Gipsdalen (gypsum valley) & empties into Gipsvika. The bay is approximately 20 miles (30 km) from Longyearbyen, the capital of Svalbard.
Gypsum was first mined in this valley in 1909, & sporadically since then, hence the names given to the area in 1927 by the Svalbard commissioner, Kristian Sindballe. Gipsvika was the only entrance into the valley & the place where the ships moored offshore.
Gipsvika is included in the Sassen-Bünsow Land National Park, opened in 2003. Relics from the early mining industry at the site have now been defined as a cultural heritage, and the valley has now become a tourist attraction. Photo by Jacob van der Weele 2007
This mnemonic was used to teach children (& adults) how to spell Ipswich.
Put (or Poured)
Does anyone know who invented this & when it was first used? Is this a British thing, or is it used in Australia & America too? Are there other acronyms or mnemonics that you know of that are used to spell Ipswich? If anyone knows anything, please let me know by emailing email@example.com
Photographer Charles Page’s “Ipswich x 5” is an exhibition of black & white photographs from five Ipswiches around the world; namely Suffolk, Queensland, Massachusetts, South Dakota & St. Elizabeth, Jamaica. It began at the Ipswich Art Gallery in Queensland on 13th February 2004 & ran for three months. A small pamphlet was produced for the event entitled “Ipswich x 5, A World Tour by Photographer Charles Page of Places Called Ipswich”. His photos of the event can be seen at: www.charlespagephotography.com
A review of the event by Prue Ahrens can be found at:
Thanks to site member Andrew Vinyard for the above information.
Charles Page is a Melbourne born photographer now based in Brisbane. He is also a lecturer at the Queensland College of Art. His “Ipswich x 5” collections is, in his own words:
“a unique document that explores the social complexities of five distinct and disparate communities that share a common lineage, and remain inexorably linked by being named Ipswich.”
This is located at 1040 Rock Street, Rockland, Victoria, which also comprises the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria.
Rockland is an historic neighbourhood in Victoria, located on an escarpment overlooking Juan de Fuca Strait and the Olympic Mountains. The first Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island received 1000 acres of land at Rockland known as the “Governor’s Reserve” and this was added to in later years. The first subdivision plan for Rockland was registered in 1865, and lots were large, from five to seven acre estates. Designed to be a prestigious neighbourhood, the Rockland area was developed in the early 1880s from a 500-acre estate called Fairfield Farm, and it became the home of wealthy entrepreneurs, bankers, and politicians.
The Gyppeswick House complex includes the Italianate home built in 1889 and designed by William Ridgway Wilson for A. A. Green, a wealthy local banker. It was named Gyppeswick for Mrs. Green’s ancestral home, Ipswich, in England. It had gardens, tennis courts, coach house and a stable. The Greens abandoned it in 1894 when their bank, Garesche and Green, failed.
It acted as a temporary Government House from 1899 to 1903, following a fire at the official residence. David Spencer, owner of David Spencer’s Department Stores, bought it in 1903 and renamed it “Lan Dderwen”, Welsh for ‘under the oaks’. His daughter, Sara Spencer, donated it to the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria in 1951, when the house reverted to its original name.
The grounds house one of Canada’s finest art galleries with over 15,000 pieces in its collection, drawn from Asia, Europe and North America, although the primary emphasis is on Canada and Japan. A Shinto shrine from the Meiji era (1886-1912) is located in the garden, and is the only Shinto shrine outside Japan. It was found abandoned in Japan and brought to the gallery in 1987. Once a year the gallery organises The Moss Street Paint-In where artists line the street and people can watch them at work.
The Ipswich series of soils are very deep, level, poorly drained non-sticky peat that occurs typically in the north eastern United States. They are found in salt grass tidal marshes close to the Atlantic Ocean, extending inland along some rivers. Ipswich Soils are usually dark greyish-brown, getting darker with depth, & can range from strongly acid to slightly alkaline. They can extend downwards from the surface to a depth of up to 65 inches. Some common vegetation found growing in Ipswich Soil includes marsh hay, cordgrass, saltgrass, sea-lavender, glasswort & sea-blite. Ipswich Soil is found in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey & Maryland.
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Before the coming of the railways, travellers would adjust their timepieces slightly as they journeyed eastwards or westwards from the Greenwich meridian. Most major towns in Britain, therefore, had their own local times, & Ipswich was no exception. From at least the late eighteenth century onwards, & probably much earlier, “Ipswich Time” was calculated as five minutes faster than Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
In 1840, Great Western Railways began the process of standardising their timetables by using only Greenwich Mean Time, or “London Time”, throughout the country, although it would be another forty years before the passing of the Statutes (Definition of Time) Bill in 1880, when Britain finally had a standard time imposed across the land; thus signalling the end of “Ipswich Time”. In the intervening years, however, the issue caused much debate.
A few months prior to the opening of Ipswich’s new Town Hall in January 1868, local people had petitioned Ipswich Corporation to ask that the new building should have two clocks; one set at GMT, the other at Ipswich Time. On the day that the Town Hall was officially opened, one of the items on the agenda of a special meeting of the Corporation was that the new clock should show Greenwich Mean Time. This was proposed by Deputy Mayor R C Ransome, but met with opposition from a Mr E Grimwade, who felt that the people of the town would be better served if the clock was to show the local time. The matter was referred to the Estates Committee, which eventually found in favour of the more standard time.
It is little known fact that one of the oldest buildings in New Zealand was known as “Ipswich House” for the first 30 years of its existence. This building is located in Rangiora, a rural town in South Island, 25 km (16 miles) to the north of Christchurch.
Luke Hunnibell, with his wife Sarah and two young sons, arrived in New Zealand in 1864 on board the Bellissima. They came from Ipswich in Suffolk, England. Luke was born in 1838 at the village of Haughley, and Sarah Wenham in 1839 at the nearby market town of Stowmarket. They were married at Ipswich in 1860 and in 1861 they were living at Foundry Road, St Margarets, in Ipswich. His occupation was that of a shoemaker.
In New Zealand they made their way to Rangiora and Luke became the first bootmaker in the town, setting himself up in a little cottage where they lived at the corner of Direct Road (now Victoria Street) and Brook Street (now Northbrook Road). The Hunnibells soon had a slate-roofed house built in King Street which they called “Ipswich House”. This no longer exists. In June 1870 Luke purchased a one acre piece of land for £140 on the corner of the Oxford and Rangiora Road (now High Street), and in about 1872 he built a two storey colonial style bootmaking shop and dwelling there with a brick chimney and cellar. It was designed with five bedrooms upstairs to accommodate the apprentice bootmakers for the business. Local newspapers of the time refer to it as the “Ipswich House Boot & Shoe Shop”, so it was evidently also given the name of the family’s home town in England.
Luke was an enthusiastic cricketer, often turning out for the local tradesmen’s side. He was also captain of the No. 2 engine room when the Rangiora Fire Brigade was formed. Luke died in November 1913. On his retirement in 1903, his youngest son, Alfred (Alf), took over the business. He inscribed the name ‘A Hunnibell’ in wooden letters on the front of the building, and that was when it became known as the “Hunnibell Building”. The Hunnibell family was very musical and took a large part in that aspect of life in the town. Rangiora cinema-goers in the early 1900s would break into applause when local boot maker Alf Hunnibell arrived at the theatre with his candle tucked inside a boot box. This was the era of silent movies, and the arrival of Alf, a talented pianist, would herald the start of the movie. He would light his candle and play the piano by ear, matching the mood of the music to the action on screen.
Alf and his wife Ethel lived behind the boot shop and workroom. During the Second World War, the front portion of the shop was used to pack and despatch food parcels to New Zealand soldiers on the front lines and prisoner of war camps. Alf ran Hunnibell’s Bootmakers until he died, aged 70, in 1951. Ethel remained in the High Street house for many years afterwards, renting the shop out to tenants. After she died at the age of 90 in 1976, the building’s association with the Hunnibell family from Ipswich came to an end and it was finally sold. Its large, often admired garden was also subdivided and sold off.
Several businesses have since occupied the building including the ANZ bank, an accountant, hairdresser, second-hand store and cycle shop. Capone’s Restaurant has been operating out of the building (257 High Street) for the last 13 years. It has also had a few colourful tenants upstairs that led to police raids, with tenants jumping out onto the fire escape and stashing their drugs in the guttering. And there is the mystery of the loaded Colt pistol found a few years ago when the cellar was being cleaned. One assumes that this has nothing to do with the present restaurant’s name!
In December 2012 a ceremony was held when the Hunnibell Building, as the oldest commercial building in the High Street, was given the New Zealand Landmarks Status (Historic Places Trust Category II registration); the plaque was unveiled by two of Luke Hunnibell’s great grandchildren.
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